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happened that the translation of Philalethes is so frequently paraphrastical in its readings.
• Next to the aid afforded by the Greek Scriptures themselves, by attention to the style of their several writers, and to the acceptation of words and phrases in various connexions, the most material assistance has been derived from Schleusner's valuable Lexicon, which however has not been followed with implicit deference. The translator has bestowed much care and labour upon the work with the view to render it at the same time faithful and clear. He has made the translation as literal as, according to his judgment, the idioms of the respective languages would allow; and he has preferred the words of the authorized version wherever they appeared to express the sense of the Apostle with precision, and in a perspicuous and pure style. -In translating a few phrases it has been judged proper to admit into the text the sense rather than the words of the sacred writer, and to give a literal version in the side margin, where two or three various readings are also placed. Words supplied in the translation are printed in italics. Preface.
We most cordially approve of the critical principle on which the version is professedly constructed, namely, that it should be as literal as the idioms of the respective languages will allow, and that wherever the words of the Authorised Version appear to express the sense with precision and in a perspicuous and pure style, they should be preferred. A sober translator will be careful to guide himself by these rules. The lext of Griesbach is assumed as the basis of the translation. The manner indeed in which the Editor, in the title-page, qualifies his adoption of it, chiefly from, prepares us to expect occasional variations between the Professsor's Greek text and this English Version. The instances, however, are not few (compared with the entire number of various readings in the translated portions of the New Testament) in wbich Philalethes has followed the Received Text in preference to that of Griesbach. It would seeni to us that he has not prescribed to himself any fixed rules in the construction of the Greek text from which he has rendered. Against some of the alterations which he has introduced, we cannot but record our serious objections. The correspondence and variations of Philalethes's text compared with ihat of Griesbach, are as follows.
Coloss. ch. i. 1. “ And the Lord Jesus Christ." Omitted by Griesbach, retained by Philalethes. Ver. 6. xai auga vousves Griesbach adds to the text, and is followed by the present Translator.
Ver. 14. “ through his blood." Philalethes agrees with Griesbach in omitting these words, which are exhibited in the Common Version.
Ver. 24. “ my" sufferings. Omitted in Griesbach's text, read in Pbil. and C. V.
Ver. 28. « Jesus." Philalethes agrees with the Common Version in this reading, which Griesbach has removed from the Greek text.
Ch. ii. ver. 2. “ and of the Father and of Christ.” Omitted by Griesbach and Philalethes.
Ver. 11. “ of the sins.” των αμαρτιων. Philalethes follows Griesbach in rejecting this reading.
Ver. 20. “ therefore." our. Rejected by Griesbach and the present Translator.
Ch. iii. v. 15. “ the peace of God.” In this reading Philalethes and the C. V. agree in opposition to Griesbach who has admitted “ Christ” (xpostou) into the text.
Ver. 16. “ to the Lord." C. V. and Phil., Griesbach reads “ to God” (Tew.)
Ver. 18. oron" (idious.) Omitted by Griesb. and Phil.
Ver. 22. “fearing God." C. V. and Pbil. Griesbach's reading is “ the Lord.” (xupsov.)
Ch. iv. 13. “ wurm affection.” Phil. “ a great zeal.” C. V. nov Tory Griesbach.
1 Thessal. ch. ii, ver. 15. “ own." C. V. and Pbil. Omitted by Griesbach.
Ch. iii. ver. 2. “ a minister.” Phil, C. V. reads "minister." The word (diaxovos) is omitted by Griesbach.
Ch. iv. ver. 13. “I would not.” C. V. and Philalethes. Griesbach's text has “ We would not." Perquiv..
Ch. v. ver. 2. “ For.” (yap) Omitted by G. and P.
II. Thessal. ch. ii. ver. 2. « day of Christ." Griesbach reads “ day of the Lord” (rupov.) Philalethes agrees with C. V.
Ver. 4. “ as God.” C. V. Omitted by Griesbach and Philalethes.
Ver. 8. " the Lord.” C. V. Phil. Griesbach reads " the Lord Jesus."
Cb.iii. ver. 6. " he received." Phil. “ye received." C. V. “ they received” ( Frempia.aborav) Griesbach.
I Timothy. ch. i. ver 1.“ Lord Jesus Christ,” C. V. “ Jesus Christ." Phil. “ Christ Jesus" Griesbach.
Ver. 17. “ the only God.” In this reading Philalethes agrees with Griesbach.
Ch. iii. ver. 16. ^ God was manifested." C. V. Griesbach: ès Philalethes adopts Griesbach's reading, and renders “Ae who was manifested.”
Ch. iv. ver. 12. “ in spirit.” Omitted by Phil. and by Griesbach.
Ch. v. ver. 4. “ good and.” Rejected by Griesbach, and omitted by Philalethes.
Ver. 12. “ also." Omitted by G. and P.
Ch. vi. ver. 19. “ eternal life.” C. V. and Philalethes. Griesbach reads της οντως ζωης. .
II Timothy, ch. ii. ver. 13. “ for,” (rap) is added to the text by Griesbach, but is not noticed by Phil.
Ver. 19. “ the name of Christ.” C. V. and P. Griesbach has “the name of the Lord.” (kupoov.)
Ch. iv. ver. 1. " and the Lord Jesus Christ." C.V. Griesbach omits“ the Lord.” (xupsou) P. agrees with the Common Version.
Titus, ch. ii. ver. 8. “ of us." Griesbach and P. The C. V. reads “ of you.
James, ch. ii. ver. 25. This whole verse is rejected by Pbilalethes, who informs us that there is great reason to conjecture that it is an interpolation though it cannot now be proved to be so. If it cannot be proved to be an interpolation, Why is it treated as if it were a spurious addition, by being excluded from the text? The omission is most unjustifiable.
Coloss. ch. i. ver. 1. “ Paul, by the appointment of God, an Apostle of Jesus Christ.” The reading of the common version,
By the will of God,” is, in our judgement, preferable, as being exactly the expression which corresponds to da Seampatos. “ Appointment" occurs again in 1 Timothy i. 1. where it is quite proper as the translation of επιταγην. .
Ver. 2. “ To the saints and faithful brethren in Cbrist." C.V. The “saints," we apprehend, were not a different class from the “ faithful brethren," as this rendering would seein to represent. Philalethes has“ holy and fuithful Christian brethren." Doddridge and Wakefield have “ holy and faithful brethren in Christ,” which will perhaps be considered as the most proper form of expression. Wickliffe, copying the Vulgate, reads “ hooli and feithful bretheren.”
We shall do more justice to the present translator, and better enable our readers to appreciate his labours by transcribing into our pages some connected passages, than by presenting our specimens only in words and lines. We copy, therefore, the follow, ing verses from the first chapter of the Epistle to the Colossians.
Ver. 3. Having heard of your faith in Christ Jesus, and of your love towards all the saints,
4. We give thanks to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, always praying for you, because of the object of hope which is laid up for you in heaven ;
• 5. Of which ye were first informed by the true doctrine of the Gospel communicated to you.
6. And as this Gospel is increasing in fruitfulness throughout the world, so it hath been among you since ye listened to it, and knew the grace of God in truth.
• 7. Thus ye learned from Epaphras our dear fellow-servant, who is for you a faithful minister of Christ,
.8.' And who hath made known to us your spiritual love.
• 9. For this cause also, since we heard of your faith, we have not ceased to pray for you, and to desire that ye may have a full understanding of this will, with all wisdom to comprehend spiritual things;
• 10. That ye may walk in a manner worthy of the Lord, so as al. together to please Him; being fruitful in every good work, increasing in the knowledge of God,
. 11. And strengthened by his glorious power, so as to be completely capable of entire constancy and joyful patience.'
On perusing the above passage, many of the readers of this new version will be of opinion, that the Editor has successfully executed his design of faithfully conveying the sense of the original, and that the phraseology in which he has clothed it, is, to say the least, not inferior to that of any former translator. Several of his readers, however, may perhaps think that he has indulged himself in rather too much freedoin as a scriptural translator; and they will be very likely to exhibit parts of the version in evidence, that Philalethes has intruded into the province of the Expositor. “ True doctrine of the Gospel;" which is also Wakefield's rendering, may be accepted instead of “ the word of “ the truth of the Gospel,” the reading of the Common Version ; but ohject of hope" is not advantageously substituted for “ hope," as a translation of the stood. The rendering, “ foundation of the hope," nentis, occurs in the 27th verse. In a commentary, such modes of expression might not be improper; but they are too much in the form of explanation to appear with strict propriéty in a version. Similar instances occur in other parts of the volume; e.g. ver. 8. “In union with bim," ch. ii. ver. 7. “ The source of our life," ch. iii. Ver. 4.“ Improve oppor
tunities," ch. iv. 6. “Adain was formed the first in order;" *** Adam was not seduced until the woman.” I Tim. ch. ii. 13, 14. In some instances, words are unnecessarily supplied : they are inserted evidently for the purpose of exhibiting the sense of the Writer distinctly and fully, but they are less proper in the work of a translator than they would be in the volumes of the commentator. We have, among others, the following examples : “ true faith.” 1 Tim. vi. 10. "Be strong in dispensing the grace which is in Christ Jesus.” 2 Tim. ii. 1. “Common affairs of life." ver. 4. “ Mosaic law.” Titus iii. 3.
• Ver. 15. “ Representing the invisible God he is the first-born of the whole creation;
*16. For in reference to him were formed all in heaven and upon earth, visible and invisible; whether occupying the highest stations or subordinate in dignity ;
• 17. All were made by him and for him, and he is before all, and through him they all subsist.
• 18. He also is the head of that body, the Church, and he is the chief, the first-born from the dead, that in all things be might have the pre-eminence.
• 19. For it bath pleased God that in him all that is complete should abide, and that by him all should be reconciled to Himself; all, whether upon earth or in heaven, by him who hath made peace by his death on the cross." ;
“ Represeating the invisible God.” We cannot accept this as the proper version of the original words, which are correctly represented in the Common Translation, and which we see no occasion whatever for changing. “ In reference to him," we might admit as a translation of as autor, but it is not unobjectionable as a rendering of i, attw. The liberty taken by the Translator with his original in the 16th verse we cannot approve : the most literal and servile translation in passages of this description, is preferable to this kind of free version. Why it should have been' judged proper to adunit into the text, the
sense rather than the words of the sacred writer, and to give a • literal version in the side margin,' the Editor has not in this case informed us, por can we perceive any good reason for the choice. The side margin contains the following reading : " Whether those occupying thrones, or exercising dominion, “ whether princes, or those in authority;" which is not a literal version. We know not why " his death on the cross," should be admitted instead of “ the blood of his cross.”
Ch. ii. 8. Beware lest any one take advantage of you by vain and deceitful philosophy, according to the doctrine of men and the principles of the world, and not according to Christ.
9. For in him, as in a body, whatever is divinely complete abideth. • 10. And ye have been made complete in him, who is the head of all that have eminence and authority.
•11, Through him, ye have also been circumcised with a circumcision not performed by hands, but in casting off the body of sensuality by the circumcision of Christ :
• 12. As in baptism ye have been buried with him, and at the same time re-animated with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead.
• 13. Even to you who were dead in your offences, and in your impure sensuality, God hath given life in union with him, having pardoned all your offences.
• 14. Annulling with respect to us the written instrument of ordinances which was adverse to us, he took it entirely away, and nailed it to the cross ;
• 15. Whereby he disarmed those that were chief in rank and authority, and exposed them in a public triumph.'
As this small volume is within the reach of every person who interests himself in the translation of the Sacred Scriptures, it is not necessary for us to extend our notice of it any further. We