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has followed a free-trade policy, that international trade has grown up founded on that policy, that the British Empire comprises over a quarter of all the land area of the world, and that all nations are to-day dependent on the products of the Empire, make this new policy [of preferential taxes] of enormous potential

consequence to other nations. Supplement : Papers and Proceedings of the Thirty-sixth Annual

Meeting of the American Economic Association. Among the
subjects discussed were European Commercial Policy, Railway
Consolidation, Quantitative Methods in Psychological Economics,
The Socialisation of Industries.

Political Science Quarterly (New York). MARCH, 1924. The Agrarian Phase of the Mexican Revolution,

1911–20. HELEN PHIPPS. The revolution was an attempt to redress grievances of long standing. Adam Smith and Benjamin Franklin. THOMAS D. Eliot. Franklin's influence on Adam Smith was not so great as Patten and others have supposed. Wage Policies and National Productivity. S. A. LEWISOHN. Comparative Tax Burdens. E. R. A. SELIGMAN. An elaborate comparison of the burdens borne by the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the United States from the beginning of the century up to the War, during the War and in the post-bellum period.

Journal of Political Economy (Chicago). FEBRUARY, 1924. Prime Costs in the Business Cycle. A. H. HANSEN.

Central Co-operative Banking in Russia. E. M. KAYDEN. Ratemaking for Public Utility. C. 0. RUGGLES. Socialisation in Germany. E. FRANKEL. Not much progress has been made by Socialisation in that drastic sense which means elimination of unearned incomes and of profit and control of the productive process by the manual workers. Coal, potash and the electrical industries alone have admitted some measure of Socialisation. The Most Favoured Nation Clause in Treaties. J. VINES. The incidents of the once prevalent, American interpretation of the

clause are examined in the light of historical instances. APRIL. German Railways and Public Finances. R. R. KUCZYNSKI.

The deficit might be reduced by certain measures, but it will be impossible for some years to obtain a surplus from the railways. The Single Tax Complex. H. GUNNISON BROWN. Arguments for greater land-value taxation are misapprehended or ignored by some contemporary economists. Discrimination in Public Utility Rates. C. O. RUGGLES. Discrimination which cannot be justified on economic or social grounds, of which there is much in existence, should be eliminated. Germany's Regulation of the Labour Market. E. FRANKEL. Post-war Local Burdens. L. R. GOTTLIEB. The British Coal Agreement. J. A. BOWIE. The coal treaty of 1921 substitutes measurement, publicity and facts for mere asseverations; and partly obliterates the cleavage between profit-takers and wage-earners.

Annals of the American Academy (Philadelphia). JANUARY, 1924. Coal is the subject of this number. The earnings

of coal-miners in the United States, their living conditions, the fatal accidents, some 3 per thousand in 1920–21 against .9 for the United Kingdom, these and other aspects of the industry are discussed by several experts. Writing on the fuel resources of the world, Mr. Holbrook of the School of Mines, Pennsylvania, estimates that some seven and a half million million tons of coal

“stand between the world and coal exhaustion." MARCH. Raw Materials and Foodstuffs in the Commercial Policies of

Nations. WILLIAM CUTHBERTSON, who presided over the Conference which discussed this subject last Autumn, contributes chapters on Import and on Export duties, on Concessions to Foreign Capitalists for exploitation of raw material, on Population and Race Rivalry and other burning topics. A Supplement presents the views of more than twenty experts.

L'Egypte Contemporaine.
NOVEMBER, 1923. De l'extension en France du regime du risque

professionel aux accidents agricoles. G. BLANCHARD. A Working
Scheme on which the Co-operative Movement in Egypt could be
Reorganised. DR. IBRAHIM RASHAD. A Brief Review of the
Cotton Conditions in Egypt during the Past Five Years. G. C.

DUDGEON.
DECEMBER. Le mouvement co-opératif au Japon. DR. I. G. LEVI.
JANUARY, 1924. Notes on the National Income of Egypt. JAMES I.

CRAIG. An able contribution to the controversy between Dr. Lévi and Mr. Baxter mentioned in Vol. XXXIII, p. 438 of the ECONOMIC JOURNAL. Mr. Craig arrives at an estimate of L.E. 270, compared with the 306 of Mr. Lévi and the 150 of Mr. Baxter.

Journal des Économistes (Paris). FEBRUARY, 1924. La pression du change. YVES-GUYOT. La crise

politique en Grande-Bretagne. W. M. J. WILLIAMS. MARCH. Le Carburant National. YVES-Guyor. The law of February

'23 requiring importers of petrol to purchase a quantity of “ alcool d'industrie ” amounting to 10 per cent. of the petrol they import is severely criticised. A la recherche du Juste prix." CH. TURGEON. A vigorous condemnation of communistic

doctrines. APRIL. À la recherche du Juste prix(fin.). CH. TURGEON.

Revue d'Économie Politique (Paris). JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1924. La réforme Agraire en Yougo-Slavie.

M. NEDELKOVITCH. To abolish feudal oppression and to provide land for an agricultural proletariat, two requisites in several provinces of the New State, have been accomplished by a reform which has freed hundreds of thousands of agricultural families from serfdom and settled them in “expropriated ” lands. La dépréciation monétaire et les valeurs mobiliéres Françaises. J. LAGRENÉE. Les causes des variations du taux de l'intérêt. BARON MOURRE. L'homme est il un capital ? CH. TURGEON. Le blé français est il trop cher ? M. LARIBÉ.

Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik (Jena). FEBRUARY, 1924. Die geschichtlichen Entwicklungsbedingungen der

schweizerischen Volkswirtschaft. H. BÄCHTOLD. Theodor Ludwic

Lau. K. ZIELENZIGER. A biographical study forming a con. tribution to German economic history. Lau, who fourished in the early years of the eighteenth century, appears to have been

the first to use the word " Nationalökonomie.” Among the Miscellanies are some interesting statistics respecting

the movement of population in Stockholm during the last two centuries, and the present population of the world.

Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozial-politik (Tübingen). Tel. LI., No. 2. Zur Theorie des Geldmarktes. A. HAIN. The

* Begriff” and “ Wesen ” of the money market and of the capital market explain recent monetary history. Cassels System der Theoretischen Nationalökonomie. A. AMMON. Die Presse. J. GOLDSTEIN. Die geschichtsphilosophischen Anschauungen

Bismarcks. V. GITERMANN. Vol. LI., No. 3. Zur Frage einer Theorie der Nichtkapitalistichen

Wirtschaftsysteme. A. TSCHAYANOFF. Now that Asia and Africa are becoming parts of the civilised world we are compelled to consider the possibility of a non-capitalistic regime co-existing with other economic systems. Zur Soziologie der parliamentarischen Representation in England. K. LOEWENSTEIN. Kreditinflation und Geldtheorie. W. MILDSCHUH. Katholizismus und Sozialismus. K. VORLÄNDER.

us. K. Wheorie. w. MOLDSK. LOEWENSTE , Parliament

Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (Jena).
JANUARY, 1924. Das Geldwesen Niederlandisch-Indiens. Prof. G. M.

VERRIJN STUART. Der moderne Wirtschaftsmensch. Dr. W.
MITSCHERLICH. Erdteilstaaten als Weltmächte. Dr. W. VOGEL.
An“ erdteilstaat” is one which, like the United States of
America, extends over, but not beyond, a large portion of the
earth's surface, and is politically homogeneous.

Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Sozialpolitik (Vienna). Vol. III., Nos. 10–12. Sechs Sätze über das Wesen der Ganzheit.

OTHMAR SPANN. A metaphysical exposition of six propositions respecting the concept of the Universe the nature of the All; e.g. (1). the All as such as no existence; (2) the Whole is all in all, all is in it and it is in all. The concept of the All enables us to apply the methods of physics to the moral sciences. Nutzen und Wirtschaftsrechnung. L. SCHÖNFIELD. The measurement of utility and other aspects of its relation to economics are elaborately discussed.

Giornale degli Economisti (Rome). JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1924. Vilfredo Pareto. A splendid tribute to

the memory of departed genius is formed by a collection of éloges, each contributed by a leading Italian economist. Amoroso, Barone, Benini, Fanno, Gobbi, Mortara, Michels, Pantaleoni, Prato, Ricci, Vinci, these and other distinguished names are conspicuous in the long list of contributors. Of particular interest to the English reader are Prof. Ricci's observations on Pareto's dictum, that only “the necessity of considering systems of equations determining equilibrium in the general case justifies the use of mathematics in political economy.” The general theory of equilibrium is truer, observes Ricci, but the treatment of one economic quantity as dependent chiefly on another, the practice of Marshall, admits better of application.

La Riforma Sociale (Turin). JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1924. Per valorizzare la statistica locale. F. A.

REPACI. Referring to the subject of the following article. I numeri indici del costo della vita in Italia. A. MOLINARI. A criticism of index-numbers for the cost of living and suggestions for their improvement. Sul funzionamento dell'imposta di richezza mobile. G. Rossi. Il Carteggio di un economista. G. SOLIERI. Referring to a new edition of the correspondence of A. Verri, who was the travelling companion of Beccaria in the

'sixties of the eighteenth century. MARCH-APRIL, 1924. Ostacoli all introduzione del Capitale estero in

Italia. J. AGUET. The Italian fiscal system discourages the entry of foreign capital.

Metron (Ferrara). Vol. III., Nos. 3, 4. Les indices économiques. L. MARCH. Index.

numbers in general, and with special reference to prices and to economic progress, are philosophically discussed. La fecondità delle aristocrazie. F. SAVORGNAN. A study on the fecundity of a certain aristocratic class in Germany. La Comunità Israelitica di Trieste. Dr. I. ZOLLER. A study on the demography of the Jewish population in Trieste.

Revista Nacional de Economia (Madrid). No. 51-2. Las analogias entre la crisis mundial en los siglos III. y XX.

G. FERRERO. An alarming parallel between the world as it is now and the declining Roman Empire. The collapse of the Senate's authority had consequences comparable with the breakup of beliefs and institutions in modern Europe. Possibly the débâcle of civilisation may be more tremendous in the twentieth than it was in the third century.

Bulletin of the Tokio Chamber of Commerce. MARCH, 1924. The consequences of the Earthquake occupy most of

this, as of the preceding number. The resulting deaths are now estimated at 100,000. Much unemployment is caused by the collapse of many industries. The President of the Chamber laments the destruction of temples, shrines and schools.

Social Sciences Quarterly (Peking).
JANUARY-MARCH, 1924. The titles of some articles in this number

are tantalising : The Method and Ideals of the Fabian Society ;
The Present State of Marriage in China , Inheritance . . . with
Suggestions for the Reform of the existing Régime in China ;
Economic Science in a Socialist Commonwealth.

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Haars TEMAS J.). State Socialism after the War. London: REE 1924 Pp. 303.

K WLAN). Precious Metals as Money. Paisley : Gardner. 1923. Pp. 336.

KET HELMER). European Bankruptcy and Emigration. London: Methuen. 1924. Pp. 169.

International Co-operation, especially between Great Britain and the United Sustes, is advocated.)

LATIE (S. A.). Economic Aspect of the Indian Rice Esport Trade. Calcutta : Gupta. 1923. Pp. 83.

In ordinary times restrictions on export are unnecessary, but in lean years some restriction is necessary; by an export duty or, better, by Government Control, as in 1918-19.)

LAYTON (W.T.). The Budget of 1933. London: Daily News, Ltd. 1923. 12 mo. Pp. 31. 6d.

The able editor of The Economist takes a dip into the future and forecasts the national balance sheet in 1933 upon certain assumptions. He expects that prices in 1933 will be doubled as compared with pre-war prices, that there will be no disturbance of international peace, but that disarmament by mutual agreement will make further progress, and that there will be no organic change in our fiscal system. He suggests readjustments of income tax, with some reduction in the rato, part of which should be compensated by an increased yield from death duties. Search should be made for now sources of indirect taxation upon luxuries to

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