The Principles of Economical Philosophy, Том 2,Випуск 1

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Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1875
 

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Smith on Rents in Shetland
13
De Fontenay on Rent
15
Rent an example of the General Law of Value
20
Land reclaimed during the Revolutionary War
21
Cost of Production of Corn
22
Moderate farms let better than very large ones
23
Ricardo on Rent of Mines
24
Absurdity of the RicardoMill Theory of Rent
25
Rent of Mines and Shops
27
Selfcontradiction of Mill on Rent
28
Anderson Ricardo and Mill on Rent
29
Selfcontradiction of Ricardo
30
Smiths error on Labour as a Standard of Value
31
Exchangeability the sole essence of Wealth and Value
32
CHAPTER XII
35
Ricardos error On Bate of Profit 87
37
Error of Malthus on Bate of Profit
38
Error of Mill on Bate of Profit
39
Examples of Bates of Profit 11
43
Profits in country shops
46
Mischief of interfering with trade Id
48
Bate of Profit may differ although Profits are equal
49
Mill controverts Smith
51
Smith right Ricardo McCulloch and Mill wrong
53
Origin of demand for Banks and Paper Money
54
Selfcontradiction of Mill
56
Explanation of a difficulty raised by Say t
58
Large Capitals give smaller Profits than small Capitals
59
Smith wrongly calls Agricultural Labour the most productive
60
Seniors description of Profits inadequate
62
Error of Physiocrates and Mill on Productive Labour
63
Error of Mill on Productive Labour
64
On Interest
69
Calvin on Interest
70
Final abolition of Usury Laws in England
72
Confusion of Mill on Value of Money
74
Difference of Profit between Interest and Discount
76
On Bate of Interest
78
Bent and Interest analogous 711
83
Effect of increase of Money on Interest
87
How an increase of Monoy affects Prices and Interest
88
Hume on Bate of Interest 8t 12 Effects of Banking on Interest
91
The Popes on Usury
93
Bates of Interest in le petit commerce
96
Effects of change in Bate of Interest
97
Same actual Bate from opposite causes
98
Definition of Labour
100
Labour is a Commodity
101
Smith admits that Labour is Wealth
102
J B Say classes Labour as Wealth
103
Selfcontradiction of Mill
104
Estimate of Wages paid to Working Classes
107
Smith on Labour as the Measure of Value
108
Error of this doctrine
109
l i i or df confounding the Measure with the Cause of Value
110
Selfcontradiction of McCulloch
113
Productive Labour
115
Definition of Wages
116
Error of Mill on Kate of Wages il7 18 On Wages
119
The alleged Wages Fund
120
The Wages Fund
121
The true Wages Fund
126
Credit part of the Wages Fund
128
Selfcontradiction of Smith as to price of food regulating Wages
129
Similar error of Bicardo
131
Belation of Wages and food
132
Wages governed by the Law of Demand and Supply
134
Specific meaning of overissue
135
Way of raising Wages
136
Error of Smith
137
Smiths third case
138
Value is the inducement to Labour
140
Further examples of this law
141
Value is determined by the result
142
Further examples
143
Value of pictures statues c
144
In many cases Value regulates cost of production
145
Fallacy in which many Strikes originated
146
Wages usually high when food low
147
Strikes founded on erroneous doctrines of Economists
148
Examples of Value regulating Cost
149
On the Division of Labour
153
Error of Smith on the origin of the Division of Labour
156
Instances of Division of Labour among animals
157
Examples of the Division of Labour
161
Example from Say
164
Examples from Babbage
165
Smith on the Division of Labour
170
Error of Smith
172
On Mills fourth proposition on Capital
179
On the Workmans Share of the Price IMS 63 The limits of Wages
191
Unpopularity of Economics
192
The Droit au Travail
195
Mr Rupert Kettle on the Wages Fund
196
Relation botween Labour and Wages
197
Producers and Consumers necessary to each other
199
Rights are Wealth
202
Smith classes Credit as Capital
206
Smith admits that abstract Rights are Wealth
209
Mill admits that Credit is Capital
211
Different kinds of Transferable Property
214
On Tithes 841
241
History of Tithes 843
242
Origin of Tithes in England 847
255
Policies of Insurance
257
On Rights of Expectation
258
Property in Ideas 2fiU
269
No patent in a general principle
270
Patents
276
PAGE
278
Goodwill of a business
279
Tolxs Febbies and Street Crossings
280
CHAPTER XV
281
Error of Mills doctrine of International Values
284
Definition of the Exchanges
286
Definition of Pab of Exchange
288
Depreciation of the Coinage causes a Fall in the Foreign Exchanges
289
This disturbance of the Exchange expressed in two ways
290
The Nominal Exchange and the Real Exchange
291
Rule to ascertain the trul state of the Exchange when tho Currency is depreciated
292
Par time of Exchange
294
On Fobeion Exchanges
295
On Fixed and Variable Price
296
On the Limits of the Variation of the Exchanges
298
Effects of an Inconvertible Paper Currency on the Foreign
299
CHAPTER XVI
338
3to
367
Bullion is the only regulator ol its amount
370
Specie and credit form the only true circulating medium
371
The rate of discount is the true mode of acting upon the paper currency
372
Effects of the action of this principle
373
In all commercial crises production should be curbed
374
The same continued
375
Historical proof of the fallacy of this theory
376
Consequences of adopting Sir A Alisons plan
377
Absurdity of it
378
Other considerations which prove that the rate of discount is the true mode of acting on the paper currency
379
Conclusion
380
ON THE DEFINITION OF CURRENCY 1 Bank Act of 1844 based on a peculiar Definition of Currency
381
Dooms of the AngloSaxons regarding the sale of goods mer chandise or cattle
382
Rules of Law regarding lost or stolen instruments
386
Judicial decisions as to the meaningof Currency
388
All Negotiable Instruments subject to same rule of Currency
389
All Negotiable Instruments are Currency
392
Bank Credits are Ready Money
401
Writers who include Bank Credits are Currency
405
Modem Opinions on Currency
407
Cobden on Currency
410
Mr G W Norman on Currency
411
Lord Overstone on Currency
413
Discussion between Hume and Lord Overstone
417
Tooke on Currency
420
Colonel Torrens on Currency
423
Examination of the modern opinions on Currency
425
Legal and Philosophical errors of these opinions
427
Consequences of these opinions
431
Opinion of M Michel Chevalier
433
AND ON THE BANK CHARTER ACT OF 1844
435
The Chinese invented Bank Notes _
436
Evil effects of Paper Money in China
438
The Currency Principle asserted in China
444
Banks in Europe constituted on the Currency Principle
445
No English Banks on this Principle
446
Foundation of the Bank of England in 1694
447
The Bank increases its Capital
448
This principle erroneous
449
The Bank suspends cash payments in 1696 and 1797
450
Partial resumption of cash payments in 1816
454
Total suspension of cash payments in 1819
455
Peels doctrines in 1819
456
Provisions of Peels Act of 1819
458
Misconceptions respecting this Act
459
The Bank resumes cash payments in 1821
461
Method adopted to carry them into effect
462
The Banks Monopoly of Banking
463
Failure of the Banks Theory in 1836 and 1839
466
Condemnation of the Bank Theory
467
Peel adopts the modern opinions in 1844
468
Provisions of the Bank Charter Act of 1844
471
The Bank Aot does not carry out the Currency 1rinciple
473
Arithmetical error of the Bank Charter Act
474
Failure of the Mechanical action of the Bank Act in 1847
476
Explanation of this failure
477
The Rate op Discount is the true governing power of the Paper Currency
479
Universal adoption of this principlo
482
The Expansive and the Restiiictive Theories
483
Stoppage of the Bank in 1797
486
The Bullion Committee condemn the Restrictive Theory
488
Peel adopts the Restrictive Theory in 1844
490
Failure of the Restrictive Theory in 1847 1857 and 1866
491
Uniform failure of the Restrictive Theory
492
Fundamental differences of Principle between the Bullion Report and the Bank Charter Act of 1844
493
Examination of the Arguments alleged in favour of main taining the Bank Act
495
The Rate of Discount the supreme power of controlling the Exchanges and the Paper Currency
500
The Directorate of the Bank
501
Mr Lowe on Commercial Crises
503
Errors of Peel
504
The Bank Act of 1844 has made all English Banking illegal
507
The Cheque Bank
511
An Inquiry into the Banking Systom necessary
515
Conclusion of Pure Economics
520

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Сторінка 163 - ... Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Сторінка 173 - In the progress of the division of labour, the employment of the far greater part of those who live by labour, that is, of the great body of the people, comes to be confined to a few very simple operations, frequently to one or two. But the understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments.
Сторінка 162 - ... it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.
Сторінка 103 - The property which every man has in his own labour, as it is the original foundation of all other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable. The patrimony of a poor man lies in the strength and dexterity of his hands; and to hinder him from employing this strength and dexterity in what manner he thinks proper without injury to his neighbour is a plain violation of this most sacred property.
Сторінка 270 - But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books, exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images, because they generate still, and cast their seeds in the minds of others, provoking and causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding ages...
Сторінка 173 - He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. The torpor of his mind renders him, not only incapable of relishing or bearing a part in any rational conversation, but of conceiving any generous, noble, or tender sentiment, and consequently of forming any just judgment concerning many even of the ordinary duties of private life.
Сторінка 156 - As it is the power of exchanging that gives occasion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in other words, by the extent of the market.
Сторінка 109 - The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.
Сторінка 170 - This great increase of the quantity of work, which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of ' performing, is owing to three different circumstances : first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman ; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another...
Сторінка 170 - A common smith, who, though accustomed to handle the hammer, has never been used to make nails, if, upon some particular occasion, he is obliged to attempt it, will scarce, I am assured, be able to make above two or three hundred nails in a day, and those too very bad ones. A smith who has been accustomed to make nails, but whose sole or principal business has not been that of a nailer, can seldom, with his utmost diligence, make more than eight hundred or a thousand nails in a day.

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