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17 yards Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount assignats bank notes Bank of England bankers benefit bills bullion cause cheaper cheapness cheques circulation circumstances classes coin commerce consequence consumers corn cost of carriage cost of labour cost of production currency dealers debt depend depreciation diminished duction effect employment enable equal equivalent exchange value exist expense exports fall favourable foreign commodities foreign countries France gain Germany greater imports improvement income increase industry international demand issue labour and capital land law of value less loans lower means ment million mode modities obtain paid paper payment persons Poland population portion pounds sterling precious metals produce proportion quantity raise rate of interest rate of profit rent rise of prices savings seignorage sell speculation sumers supply supposed supposition taxation things tion trade transactions value of money wages whole yards of cloth yards of linen
Сторінка 336 - I am not charmed with the ideal of life held out by those who think that the normal state of human beings is that of struggling to get on ; that the trampling, crushing, elbowing, and treading on each other's heels, which form the existing type of social life, are the most desirable lot of human kind, or anything but the disagreeable symptoms of one of the phases of industrial progress.
Сторінка 339 - V( there much satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature; with every rood of land brought into cultivation, which is capable of growing food for human beings ; every flowery waste or natural pasture ploughed up, all quadrupeds or birds which are not domesticated for man's use exterminated as his rivals for food, every hedgerow or superfluous tree rooted out, and scarcely a place left where a wild shrub or flower could grow without being eradicated...
Сторінка 395 - The certainty of what each individual ought to pay is, in taxation, a matter of so great importance, that a very considerable degree of inequality, it appears, I believe, from the experience of all nations, is not near so great an evil as a very small degree of uncertainty.
Сторінка 569 - Laisserfaire, in short, should be the general practice : every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil.
Сторінка 395 - Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression...
Сторінка 338 - Under this twofold influence, society would exhibit these leading features: a well-paid and affluent body of labourers; no enormous fortunes, except what were earned and accumulated during a single lifetime; but a much larger body of persons than at present, not only exempt from the coarser toils, but with sufficient leisure, both physical and mental, from mechanical details, to cultivate freely the graces of life, and afford examples of them to the classes less favourably circumstanced for their...
Сторінка 189 - Gold and silver having been chosen for the general medium of circulation, they are, by the competition of commerce, distributed in such proportions amongst the different countries of the world, as to accommodate themselves to the natural traffic which would take place if no such metals existed, and the trade between countries were purely a trade of barter.
Сторінка 340 - Hitherto it is questionable if all the mechanical inventions yet made have lightened the day's toil of any human being.
Сторінка 396 - Equality of taxation, therefore, as a maxim of politics, means equality of sacrifice. It means apportioning the contribution of each person towards the expenses of government, so that he shall feel neither %more nor less inconvenience from his share of the payment than every other person experiences from his.