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Roman provinces and adopted the language and customs of the people they conquered. But along with other forms of Roman civilization it reached the Saxons on the Northern coasts of Europe, who did not so easily adopt foreign customs, and changed some of those they accepted. Among others was the week, which reached them before the name of the Sun's day was changed. They accepted the Sun and the Moon, for they were their own gods as well : but the rest were changed for the gods of their adopters. Thus Mar's day was changed to Tiw's or Tuesco's; Tuesco was a god of the air in the early Mythology of the Teutons.
Mercury's place was taken by Wodon or Odin, Jupiter's by Thor or Thunor the Thunderer, Frija, the wife of Odin, was put in the place of Venus: and Saturn's day was retained, as there was a god Saetere who bore some resemblance to the classical deity.
JOHN BULL AND HIS ISLAND.
distance from the earth which they regarded as the centre of the planetary system. So that they stood in the following order:-1, Saturn; 2, Jupiter; 3, Mars; 4, the Sun ; 5, Venus; 6, Mercury; 7, the Moon.
We may say here parenthetically that by putting the earth in the fourth place, and transposing the places of Venus and Mercury, we should get the order of the distances from the Sun, remembering that the Moon must always be the earth's satellite.
When these old Egyptian astrologers or astronomers, it is hard to know which to call them, wanted to distinguish the hours of the day they named them in succession after the planets in the above order. They further named each day after the planet which ruled its first hour, and it was by this method of theirs that our days of the week are named as they are. They began with Saturn, who ruled the first, eighth, fifteenth and twenty-second hours of the day that was named after him. So the twenty-third was Jupiter's and the twentyfourth Mars', and thus the Sun ruled the first hour of the second day, and the day itself. Similarly the twenty-third fell to Venus, the twenty-fourth to Mercury, and the first of the next day as well as the day itself to the Moon. By working all round on this system they got the days of the week named in the order we have them now. As we said above this week was probably borrowed by the Hebrews at an early stage in their history. It was also borrowed by the Romans at a very much later date, and their week was named as it is sometimes named now on doctors' prescriptions and in their day books. It was of course from Rome that this division of time spread into Europe, but before it did so three changes took place, which are all the difference between the names of the days in the French, Italian, and Spanish languages and their names in the old Egyptian calendar.
All these changes are due to Christianity. The week was made to begin on the Sun's day, not on Saturn's day: that day was called Dies Dominica, or Lord's day, whence the French Dimanche, the Italian Domenica, and the Spanish Domingo ; and Saturn's day itself was called Sabbatum after the Jewish Sabbath, and this is found again in Samedi, Sabbato, and Sabado.
These were all the alterations the week underwent in Rome, and it remained as it was when it spread among those foreign nations who settled in the
The appearance of the English translation of “ John Bull et son lle," which we predicted in our article of the date October 17th, 1883, may warrant us in a slight further notice of this book. We will not insult our readers by inforning them that, even at this early date, it has had a large circulation, and that it has been reviewed orer and over again in terms more or less laudatory.
It is our present purpose to lay before our friends a few of the writer's remarks on English Schools and Schoolboys, and it is needless for us to premise that these criticisms are marked by the same acumen, and often by the same delicate irony, characterise the book throughout. Let us, then, plunge " in medias res," remembering that our writer speaks as a Frenchman, who, personally, may not have fathomed the depths of the English School. boy's intelligence, or fully realised the edge of his wit.
It would seem that the French instructor, like the ordinary Form Master, bas his difficulties to contend with: “Ecce signum," page 154.
“A French Schoolboy, who has not prepared bis lesson, will say to his Master, “I have not done my lessons, Sir;' to appease the Master's wrath he may shed one or two crocodile's tears. The young English Schoolboy will employ circumlocution :
We sbrink from the task of adjusting our Mossoo's brilliant theorising faculty to the urgency of fact and truth, but thank him heartily for the pleasant hours wbich we have spent in his company, to the improvement of our previous acquaintance with “ John Bull and his Island.”
'Please, Sir, I am afraid I have not learnt my lesson,' or, 'I don't think I bave learnt my lesson.' He is seldom very sure. If he is quite certain, and has a valid excuse, he has more assurance : Please, Sir,' said a little fellow to a professor of my acquaintance, one day, 'I have not prepared my translation ; Grandmama died last night.' Well, I suppose you must be excused this time, but tell
Grand. mother not to let it happen again.'” (Good taste tbis, Monsieur, or Mossoo, or Mossiary, Mocho, Mochinary, “Seu Mounsier libentius audis." page 152.]
“Another time an exercise full of barbarisms and solecisms was presented. • The work you have brought me this morning is shameful,' said my friend. 'It isn't my fault, Sir, Papa always will help me, pleaded the pupil.'” It is a pity that our writer does not record the answer to this plea ; he does not appear to have appreciated the deliberate insolence, which one seems to detect in this youngster's remark.
Here are a few quotations, some of which we can heartily endorse, from the chapter on Public Schools :
“ To develop the physical faculties of the young, and, by means of liberty and confidence, to coltivate in them the love of what is right; such is the double aim of the great English Schools."
“ The result of the system of confidence placed in them from their tenderest years is that, at fifteen years old, English boys know how to behave them. selves like men."
“I think, on the wbole, too much importance is attached to athletic games. I admire the development of the physical faculties, but I draw the line at professional runners and walkers. I prefer a horse. Football is a wild game, fit for savages !!”
The stories, which appear in almost every page of the book, are charming; every one of them is armed with a point-shall we call it a sting ?
After the above quotations, which we offer as fair specimens of our author's style, and of the subject matter throughout, we confidently recommend the book to the notice of our readers, with the remark that, together with much fair and friendly criticism, it contains many obvious--almost glaring-misstatements. But these, one feels sure, arise not from wilsul misrepresentation, but rather from a Frenchman's tendency to jump at a conclusion.
MARRIAGES. Jan. 15th, at Christ Church, Bankipore, Bengal, Michael Ernle du Sautoy Prothero, B.A., Oxford, Bengal Educational Department, son of the Rev. George Prothero, Rector of Whippingham, Isle of Wight, to Kathleen Eleanor Gay, eldest daughter of Surgeon-Major John Gay French, M.D.
Feb. 6th, at St. Mary's Church, Welsh Pool, Robert Chaloner Critchley Long, third son of the late R. P. Long, M.P., of Road Ashton, to Maud Felicia Frances Anne, youngest daughter of the late Capt. Willes Johnson, R.N.
Feb. 6th, at St. Martin's Church, Salisbury, Theophilus Lott, Shipston-on-Stour, Solicitor, to Harriet Elizabeth, third daughter of John Lewis Trowbridge, of Exeter Street, Salis. bury.
Feb. 13th, at St. James', Paddington, Henry Turton Norton, M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge, eldest son of H. E. Norton, Esq., 33 Cornwall Gardens, to Laura Francis, eldest daughter of H. N. Laurence, Esq., of 6 New Square, Lincoln's Inn,
Feb. 144th, at Braunston, the Rev. H. F. Knightley, Vicar of Wasperton, Warwickshire, to Florence Mary, only child of T. Garratt, løte Captain 14th Light Dragoons, of Braunston House.
DEATHS. Feb. 17th, in his 39th year, Samuel Lawford Prior, of Gordon House, Blackheath Park, eldest son of the late Samuel Turner Prior, of Black leath.
Feb. 17th, at 17 Devonshire Place, Hyde Park, Charles Stuart Calverley, late Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge.
Feb. 21st, at Onley Farm, Harrow, aged 47, George Richards, eldest son of the late Vicar of Tyldesby.
ARMY. Royal Engineers— Brevet Lieut.-Col. William North, to be Major.
The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry--Lieut. Charles Ernest Heath to be Captain.
Bengal Staff Corps-Lieut.-Colonel Charles Edward Stewart to be Colonel.
5th Battalion, the Rille Brigade-George Reginald Lascelles to be Lieutenant.
7th Battalion, the Rifle Brigade-Benjamin Hamilton Boucher to be Lieutenant.
Pembroke Yeomanry Cavalry—Thomas James Roch, late Captain, R.A., to be Lieutenant.
Madras Staff Corps - Lieut. Col. Charles Walker Street to be Colonel.
Gould's, Ford's beat Horner's, and Way's drew the ECCLESIASTICAL PREFERMENTS.
bye. In the second ties Ford's beat Way's, Preshute Rev. Walter Copleston Furneaux; Vicar of Leamington,
Baker's, and Leaf's drew the bye. and Surrogate for the Diocese of Worcester.
In the semi-final tie, Ford's (Maltese Cross) beat Rev. William Frederick Pym; Curate of Sellack-with-King's Caple.
Leaf's (Mitre) by three games to one, and are now Mr. Gerard F. Cobb’s Service in G., Magnificat and Nunc || playing Preshute for the Cup. Dimittis, dedicated to the Archbishop of Canterbury, was sung In the first ties of House Fives, Cotton House beat at St. Paul's Cathedral last Sunday afternoon.
Way's, Leaf's beat Littlefield, Gould's beat Baker's,
Preshute beat Ford's, and Horner's drew the bye. In the Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Sports, the following events
In the second ties Leaf's beat Preshute, and Horner's were won by Old Marlburians.
Cotton House, Gould's drawing the bye. Half-mile Handicap (for Boating men)-1st, S. Swann (scratch), 2 min. 8 sec.
In the semi-final tie Gould's (Star) play Horner's Putting the weight-2nd S. Swann.
(Cross-Arrows); Leaf's (Mitre) a bye. Two miles race-1st S. Swann, 10 min. 52 sec.
None of the most important Hockey Matches have Hurdle race 120 yds-1st S. Swann.
yet taken place. On February the 16th the School Half-mile race-2nd S. Swann.
beat the Common Room by five goals to nothing; a Throwing the Hammer-1st S. Swann, 88ft.
return match was to have come off last Saturday, High Jump--- Ist H. C. Forrester, 5ft ; 2nd S. Swann.
but it had to be postponed. The following O.M.'s are rowing in the Torpids at Oxford :
The lecture, which the Rev. E. F. Noel-Smith Corpus—3. S. G. Williams
gave on Saturday, February the 16th, on the subject 4. E. N. Gardiner
of his Mission work at Tottenham, proved as interR. F. Cholmeley (stroke)
esting as it was amusing; a large number of the New lst H. Brinton (bow)
School attended, and the Bradleian was full to overKeble 1st-2. T. Cooper
flowing. We publish an account in another column, 7. D. Wauchope
together with a notice of a meeting of Oxford Old Queen's—4. R. H. Jones Oriel-3. P. H. Eliot
Marlburians to consider the same subject.
We are glad to report that the Bursar has recovered 6. P. H. Maddock
his health and resumed his duties. Illness has un. Worcester-4. H. R. Firth
fortunately fallen upon another member of the Com. 5. R. B. Thompson.
mon Room, Mr. Alford, who has been away for a
time. His place has been supplied by H. R. Occasional Notes.
Thomson, Esq., O.M.
TAE Race Committee has shown its energy by
announcing two new events in the coming races. The Marlborough Nomads Football Club will give One of them is the long demanded Tug of War; it has their fifth annual ball at the Kensington Town-hall, been arranged that, “ a team of eight from each house on Wednesday, April 23rd. Tickets, price 10s. 6d. should compete for the eight little pewter pots,'” each, may be had on application to any of the which it is said are to be the prizes. Another is a following :
“dribbling race,” in which the object is to dribble a R. F. Isaacson, 38, Bessborough, Street, S.W. Rugby Union football between the openings of a A. J. Burness, 5, Addison Road, W.
flight of hurdles. E. H. Lawrie, 10, Cheltenham Terrace, S.W.
PERHAPS other alterations in the events may be H. T. Ravenhill, 27, Courtfield Gardens, S.W. expected; we draw attention to the letter of a G. H. Windeler, Ditton Hill, Surrey. '
correspondent who suggests the abolition of the FIVES AND RACQUETS, favoured by fine weather, O.M.'s race. The hurdles and the other paraphernalia have been very popular during the last three weeks ; for practising have been for some time in the field. most of the ties have been already played off.
The Racquet match against Wellington has been In the first ties of House Racquets, Preshute beat fixed to take place upon Saturday, March the 15th, Cotton House, Leaf's beat Littlefield, Baker's beat and the return match upon the following Saturday.
The Report of the Natural History Society, which has just appeared, is as interesting as ever ; publish a review in another column.
The Rifle Corps has received a present of a Morris Tube from J. A. Bourdillon, Esq., O.M. Another is about to be procured; and they will be used for practice in the neighbourhood of the Mound.
Ar the next meeting of the N.H.S. on Thursday, Dr. Rae, F.R.S., will lecture upon “Life in the Arctic Regions."
TAERE will not be more than one Penny Reading this term.
On last Friday evening a most successful entertain. ment was given in the Upper School, Mr. Brandram giving one of his recitations. His programme was on this occasion diversified; the first part being Shakspearian and illustrating the character of Prince Hal; the second being miscellaneous. The choir sang, treating the audience to two glees between
We beg to acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of the following contemporaries : - Elizabethan, Meteor, Carthusian, Haileyburian,
Haileyburian, Melburnian, Sydneian, Pelican, Lorettonian, Our School Times, Fettesian, Reading School Magazine, Barrovian, Wellingburian, Laxtonian, Tonbridgian, Thistle, Cheltonian, Reptonian, Horae Scholasticae.
active and loyal body of fellow-workers, and how much the hearts of the people were with him in the progress of the work which they at Marlborough College were helping to carry on.
So far as the Mission was concerned, with its present resources, everything was most satisfactory. The only thing they really wanted now was a church, and Mr. Smith's exertions were directed and his wishes were bent upon that object. Until they had a church they could not say the Mission had assumed a permanent form, because they were now dependent, upon the kindness of the School Board of Tottenham, who lent them a large room in which the Sunday services were carried on. He was not appealing to them for help about the church. Mr. Smith knew how much the boys and masters of Marlborough College were doing to maintain the Missiou ; help for the church must be asked for from a wider circle.
He was only saying that so far as the mission could go, with its present resources, the work was being done thoroughly well, and there was every reason to congratulate Mr. Smith, as well as his fellow worker, Mr. Marshall, also an old Marlburian, on the success attending it (cheers).
The Rev. E. F. NOEL-Smith then made a speech of about half-an-hour's duration, in the course of which he said, -Sometimes in the Mission I get tired and fatigued and out of heart from a variety of causes, but every now and then I come down and see you, and cheered by your sympathy and friendship I get in good heart and go on again. You will not wonder that I am somewhat overdone sometimes if I tell
you we have upwards of 6,000 people to look after,pretty well double the number Marlborough contains, and more than ten times the size of the College ; but fortunately last year I have not been single-handed but have had a colleague. When I fell ill a year ago or more, a friend of mine - one of the curates of St. Peter's, Eaton-Square-offered to give one year's work without salary in the Marlborongh Mission. He came, and very useful and valuable was his help; but before his year was ap we became, after a fashion, a fat and endowed church, because we got a grant from the Ecclesiastical Commissionerg-a stipend for an assistant curate, so that although Mr. Watson's year
and he has gone, there is no reason wby, so far as money is concerned, I should ever be single. handed again. So last year, when Mr. Watson's time expired, I got an old Marlburian to come and
MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE MISSION.
On Saturday evening, Feb. 16th, the Rev. E. F. Noel-Smith, who is in charge of St. Mary's Mission, Tottenham, delivered an interesting address before a large audience in the Bradleian on the progress of his work during the past year.
After a short prayer, THE MASTER, who presided, said he did not propose to use many words to introduce Mr. Smith, for, in fact, he needed no introduction there. He would rather express his pleasure that they had come together in such large numbers to welcome him and to congratulate him on the success of the past year. He (the Master) had had more than one opportunity of seeing on the spot how their Tottenham Mission was prospering. He went over there in October to preach on behalf of the building fund, and also during the last Christmas vacation to a social meeting of the congregation; and on both occasions he saw clearly how much Mr. Smith had succeeded in gathering around him an
help, namely, a former head of Mr. Gilmore's house. Besides the endowment I have mentioned we have got another not quite so valuable—400 chairs, a set of surplices, and a set of Communion plate from the people's own offerings; and coming lower still we have ropes and seats for not less than ten swings for the annual school treats. Let me describe a little more our plans-how and where we work. First of all the Master was somewhat unduly liberal when he said the Sobool Board lent as their room. They do, but we have to pay £60 a year for it. This we have on Sundays: it holds 400 people, and it is generally pretty well filled. Besides that we have a mission room in a little place called Reform-row, and we rent that for day and weekly services at £20 a year, through the kindness of the owners of a large factory who are very glad we should work amongst their employés. The Sunday Schools go on so well that last summer in a small room not much bigger than this platform we used to have as many as sixty infants squeezed together. We rented of the School Board another set of rooms, and we now have accommodation for 500 children; over 300 are in attendance every Sunday between the two scbools. A few words as to what is done. First with regard to the Sunday services. We have a very good vol. untary choir and organist. We give the boys a treat occasionally; you have a half-holiday or something here ; but what we do is to take the boys to the seaside every year.
We went to Eastbourne a year ago and last year to Hastings. In our ball we have had as many as 450, and when there is some special attraction, such as a harvest festival, or the Bishop of Bedford's coming—that always fills the place to overflowing; all the people love the Bishop of Bedford wherever he is known. But I don't dwell much on that; the great thing is that Sunday after Sunday the place is pretty well filled, and the atten. dance keeps up.
It comes down a bit in summer, but all through the winter the place is practically full. I generally go to the door and button-hole the people and ask them what they will do—would they teach or visit ?-and I pick up a good many workers
It may interest you perhaps to have a few figures showing the progress of the work. At Easter, two years ago, there were 24 communicants ; last Easter there were 90. On Whit-Sunday there were 42 the first year, and 125 in the second year. The reason of that great increase of course is mainly owing
to the namber of people confirmed last year. Out of about 70, more or less prepared, 57 were presented ; two of them were women over 70 years of age, and eight of them were men between the age of 31 and 45. Now I think we may leave this Sunday service and go
for a while to Reform Row, which is the most interesting part of the work, because it belongs to us
First of all the room is now used for alternative evening services. The parish is rather scattered; and these two places are three-quarters of a mile apart. The Reform Row room is also used for Sun. day Schools. A very distinct feature of the mission in that room has been the mid-day services. In the city during the dinner hour a great many churches are filled for a short time although they are quite empty on Sunday, and ought to be pulled down and re-built in places like Tottenham. We tried first of all on Ascension day, a service in this room for a quarter of an hour. We asked the men to go without their pipe, and got aboot ninety to attend. There was just time for two hymns, a four-minute's' sermon,
a minute for prayer, and five minutes to get into the factory. All through the winter we kept that service
then we dropped it for a while. To keep up the attendance we found it necessary after Christmas until Feb. ruary to sing Christmas Carols. If you call it a carol people think more of it than of a hymn. We used to get forty or fifty present. We have an interesting part of the work connected with girls in this large factory. We get a great many of them by inviting them to come and sing on Sunday afternoons, just as a numerous family party might do at home. Three or four of them are now Sunday school teachers, and bave that social status which the office of teachers always gives. We also tried night schools for teaching reading and writing, for women as well as men. Only two women placked up courage to come, and after going on six or eight weeks, we thought it hardly worth while to keep that up. We baited the hook very extensively for
An old Marlborough boy (Mr. J. Cripps) came and did history, and another offered to teach science, while I tried to teach them reading. got sixteen or seventeen ; we ought to have got more, of course, so it was a failure.
I thought I would get up an attendance. I asked all the men to come -not to be taught, but to hear a lecture by the Bishop of Bedford. They were delighted, and
in that way.