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tion. But, in the second place, the have spoken what she never could power or faculty here ascribed to the have learned. This story, therefore, young German girl seems to remain seems to us to prove a great deal too altogether unaccounted for by any the- much-certainly much more than that ory—whether of Hartley-Aristotle relicks of sensation may exist for an or Mr Coleridge. Had this girl been indefinite time in a latent state. If it taught by the old Protestant Pastor a be a true story, the wonder seems to number of Hebrew words and sen- us greater, that the girl should have tences,—and afterwards seemingly for- ever acquired such knowledge by such gotten them,-till, in a nervous fever means, than that the knowledge havshe again uttered them in her deliri- ing been seemingly lost should, in deous ravings,-the fact would have been lirium, have been restored. curious,-and, even without satisfac- A very singular case of sudden obtory explanation, would have been literation of the deepest impressions credible. For it would have amount occurred in Oxford, somewhat later ed only to this,--the sudden resuscita- than the middle of the last century. tion of ideas apparently dead, and the The present writer heard it narratsudden reappearance of impressions ap- ed by the late Mr Wyndham, and parently effaced.
But as the story the fact is well known to many perstands, we are forced to believe that sons yet living. A woman, who was this girl possessed, in her delirium, a there executed, was restored to animaknowledge which she never did pos- tion. She completely recovered her sess at any previous period of her life. health-married-bore children--and The Hebrew language is not to be conducted herself reputably through acquired by any young servant girl life. But the effect produced on her whatever, when at work in the kit- memory by the shock which her bodily chen, from the recitations of her learned frame had sustained was most extramaster declaiming rabinical wisdom ordinary. She recollected every thing to and fro before the said kitchen-door. distinctly up to the day of her trial; Doubtless a word or two might so be but from that day she recollected nopicked up-but that long sentences thing; and the period between her and harangues from the Rabbins, and trial and execution for ever after rethe Greek and Latin Fathers, after- mained a blank in her memory. She wards capable of filling whole sheets had behaved in prison with great comwith ravings, should have been dis- posure and resignation-had partaken tinctly, and accurately, and gramma- of the sacrament on the morning of tically committed to memory by girl execution--sung a hymn on the scafwho could neither read nor write, and fold-taken a calmfarewell of her under such circumstances, cannot be friends--and betrayed no symptoms of thought possible but by the most cre- terror. But all these scenes were for dulous. Mr Coleridge does not seem ever effaced from her mind nor had to think the acquisition of such know- she ever afterwards the faintest glimledge, in the first case, any way re
mer of recollection that she had been markable; at least he makes no allusion placed in such jeopardy, Her meto so wonderful a phenomenon. We mory with regard to every thing else suspect, indeed, that he is of opinion was unimpaired. It would seem as that the girl repeated, in her delirium, if the ideas that possessed her mind that which she never could repeat in during her imprisonment, and were her sound senses. If so, we do not uppermost on it, had literally been all comprehend his philosophy.
The wiped away: sounds uttered by a Protestant Pastor În Mr Coler:rge's chapter on the struck the ear of the girl, an impres- Law of Association, in which he trasion was therefore made on her sense ces its history froin Aristotle to Hartof hearing. But does Mr Coleridge ley, he relates an anecdote of David believe that this impression was that Hume, which is so curious, that we of distinct and separate sounds, of syl- wish Sir James MʻIntosh would either lables, words, sentences, periods ? 'It confirm or deny its truth.
It is as could not so have been. Her ravings follows: must have borne some resemblance to
5. In consulting the excellent commenthe impression formerly received. But, tary of St Thomas Aquinas on the Parva if in her delirium she spoke good He- Naturalia of Aristotle, I was struck at once brew and excellent Greek, she must with its close resemblance to Hume's esVol. III.
say on association.
The main thoughts a very considerable difference between were the same in both, the order of the the Scottish sceptic and the angelic thoughts was the same, and even the illus, doctor, and he ought not to have said, trations differed only by Hume's occasional that the illustrations of Hume differsubstitution of modern examples. I mentioned the circumstance to several of my
ed only in the occasional substitution literary acquaintances, who admitted the of more modern examples, for that is closeness of the resemblance, and that it not the case, and such a groundless seemed too great to be explained by mere assertion is calculated to give a most coincidence ; but they thought it improbable false impression of Hume's beautiful that Hume should have held the pages of essay to those who may not have read the angelic Doctor worth turning over. But it, or who, like Mr Coleridge, may some time after Mr Payne, of the King's have wholly forgotten it. Hume thus mews, shewed Sir James M‘Intosh some odd volumes of St Thomas Aquinas, partly
states his theory, perhaps from having heard that Sir James “ To me there appear to be only three (then Mr) MʻIntosh had in his lectures past principles of connexion among ideas, namea high encomium on this canonized philoso- ly, resemblance, contiguity in time and pher, but chiefly from the fact, that the vo- place, and cause and effect. That these lumes had belonged to Mr Hume, and had principles serve to connect ideas, will not, I here and there marginal marks and notes of believe, be much doubted. A picture nalreference in his own hand-writing. Among urally leads our thoughts to the original these volumes was that which contains the (resemblance). The mention of one apartParva Naturalia, in the old Latin version, ment in a building naturally introduces an swathed and swaddled in the commentary inquiry or discourse concerning the others afore mentioned !"
(contiguity). And if we think of a wound,
we can scarcely forbear reflecting on the Mr Coleridge does not say, that this pain which follows it (cause and effect).” anecdote was communicated to him by In a note to another passage in his Mr Payne, nor yet by Sir James
essay, Hume adds, MʻIntosh ; and therefore it may,
“ Contrast, or contrariety, is a connexion ter all, be merely an idle piece of float- among ideas which may perhaps be consiing literary gossip. The anecdote dered as a mixture of causation and resem. would have been more valuable had blance. When two objects are contrary, Mr Coleridge, instead of dealing in the one destroys the other, i.e. is the cause such very general terms, quoted from of its annihilation, and the idea of the anthe “ excellent commentary of St
nihilation of an object implies the idea of
its former existence." Thomas Aquinas on the Parva Natu
Hume therefore agrees with St Thoralia of Aristotle," that part from which David Hume is said to have so
mas Aquinas in thinking resemblance freely borrowed or stolen. This we
and contiguity two principles of con
nexion among ideas. He holds a shall now do. In Chap. V. of the
somewhat different view with regard said Commentary “ de Memoria et Reminiscentia” there is the following adds that of cause and effect. Hume
to the principle of contrariety, and he passage :
expressly says, I do not find that “ Similiter etiam quandoque reminisci- any philosopher has attempted to entur aliquis incipiens ab aliquâ re, cujus umerate or class all the principles of memoratur à qua procedit ad aliam triplici association.” If he indeed had read ratione. Quandoque quidem ratione simi- and studied the commentary of Aquilitudinis, sicut quando aliquis memoratur de Socrate, et per hoc occurrit ei Plato, qui candid, and therefore it would be im
way of talking is not very est similis ei in sapentia : quandoque vero ratione contrarietatis, sicut si aliquis memo
portant, both to his originality and retur Hectoris et per hoc occurret ei Achilles. fair-dealing, that the world should be Quandoque vero ratione propinquitatis cu- told, by the only person who can tell juscunque, sicut cum aliquis memor est pa- them, if there be any truth in this tris, et per hoc occurrit ei filius. Et eadem anecdote. ratio est de quacunque alia propinquitate This however is certain, that Mr vel societatis, vel loci, vel temporis, et prop- Coleridge's dislike to Hume has beter hoc fit reminiscentia,quia motus horum trayed him into a most unjust charge se invicem consequntur.”
against that philosopher. It is absoIt is needless to quote more, for this is lutely false, that " the main thoughts the whole theory; and, without doubt, are the same in both, the order of the it hears a very strong resemblance to thoughts the same, and that even the that of Hume. Mr Coleridge, however, illustrations differ only in Hume's ocought to have said; that there is also casional substitution of more modern
examples.” We have read the whole cloud which it would fain believe to commentary of St Thomas Aquinas, be its own creation, the fluttering exand we challenge Mr Coleridge to ulting insect does not indeed attract produce from it a single illustration, to itself the attention of ordinary pasor expression of any kind, to be found sengers. It requires the organs of an in Hume's essay. The whole scope entomologist to descry the tiny buzzer and end of Hume's essay is not only glittering in the dim light of an ephedifferent from that of St Thomas meral existence, and clapping its gauzy Aquinas, but there is not, in the winglets as if it had flown over the commentary of the “ angelic doctor,” Atlantic. But it is the nature of one idea which in any way resembles, those enthusiastic in pursuits such as or can be made to resemble, the beau- ours, to find interest enough, and to tiful illustration of the prince of scep- spare, in matters derided as utterly intics. Hume says that instead of significant by the uninitiated. We do entering into a detail of instances, not expect, indeed, that most of our " which would lead into many use
readers will at all sympathise with us less subtleties, we shall consider some in the pleasure which we have had in of the effects of this connexion upon pinning into our portfolio this new the passions and the imagination, specimen of the humming tribe,—this where we may open a field of specu- stridiferous and blustering Lilliputian, lation more entertaining, and perhaps this champion and guardian of the more instructive, than the other." fame of Bacon. They must, however, He then proceeds to shew the opera- bear with our infirmity, and task tion of the principles of connexion themselves to be listeners for a few among ideas in the composition of moments while we comment, not perhistory, and of epic and tragic poetry. haps without the self-importance of In this inquiry the whole essay con- discoverers, on the shape and vocation sists, and there is not a single syllable of our new found fly. in St Thomas Aquinas' commentary Mr Macvey Napier, Fellow of the on such subjects.
Royal and Antiquarian Societies of Oriel College, Oxford.
Edinburgh, has then, be it known to all those whom it may concern, filled fifty-four quarto pages of the Tran
sactions of the former of these most REMARKS ON MR MACVEY NAPIER'S ES- illustrious associations, with an essay
intended to enlighten the world at OF LORD Bacon's WRITINGS, in large in regard to two subjects, where
on the said Mr Macvey Napier very SACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY sagaciously supposes the said world to
have great need of illumination. The
first of these is the scope, and the se" It was prettily devised of Æsop- cond is the effect, of Lord Bacon's lathe fly sat upon the axle-tree of the bours as a philosophical writer. Now chariot-wheel, and said, “What a dust we, innocent as we are of any condo I raise." so there be some vain per nexion with the Royal, the Antisons who, whatsoever goeth alone, or quarian, or even the Dilettanti Somoveth upon greater means, if they ciety of Edinburgh, were really so have never so little hand in it, they much in the dark before the publicathink that it is they that carry it.” tion of Mr Napier's very important So says Bacon, in one of those immor- essay, as not to know that any dispute tal essays which men should read in had of late arisen among the members order to know themselves, before they of those truly venerable and august think of writing books for the instruc- institutions, touching either the nation of others. In glancing over the ture or influence of the philosophy of very pompous and imbecile essay Bacon. The dissertation of Mr Stewwhich we have named at the head of art, wherein the character of Bacon's this paper, we could not help recol- works is described with so much philecting these short and pithy words of losophical eloquence, had indeed been the Prince of modern Philosophers, attacked on some points by a writer in and saying to ourselves, “ The axle- the Quarterly Review ; but we, like tree of Bacon's genius has at last the rest of the world, had no difficulty forind its fiy.” Lost amidst that in perceiving that the assault of the
SAY ON THE SCOPE AND INFLUENCE
THE LAST VOLUME OF THE TRAN
critic had originated only in miscon- who have a good house over their ception, and we considered the whole heads. Mr Stewart has such a covmatter as long since at an end. Mr ering. But a truce to similitudes. Napier, however, is Editor of the We leave them to old Timothy TickSupplement to the Encyclopædia Bri- ler, who, we doubt not, will soon fatannica, and felt himself called upon vour the world with “ Letters to to vindicate from stain, however slight, eminent Literary Characters, No VI. the character of a writer whose disser- -to Mr Macvey Napier.” tation had been published under his As to the contents of Mr Napier's auspices. Watching, with all the Essay, it is, in the first place, no easy grave amplitude of his Editorial wing, matter to get at them. The fifty-four over the Stewarts, the Playfairs, and pages are like so many harlequins, for other helpless creatures, who it seems the motley patches and quotations put their trust under his shadow, the with which they are covered; but indignant Conductor sits like the ram- notwithstanding this diversity of raipant lion of his country's scutcheon, ment, the said fifty-four pages co-opewith a
nemo hos impune lacesset" rate, like so many brothers, in drawin his mouth. With the attitude and ing the eyelids together. Candour, motto, however, the parallel must however, obliges us to confess, that stop ; our Encyclopædial lion is fang- their conjoined exertions have by no less and toothless; and those who look means a soothing influence ; but, on for his protection must be content to the contrary, an irritating and teasing take the will for the deed.
effect. If we had been merely doomThe idea of Macvey Napier de- ed to hear them read aloud, it is posfending Dugald Stewart against the sible that we might have enjoyed the Quarterly Review, reminds us of a same sweet and refreshing slumber, story to be found, we believe, in one which is said to have visited the memof the popular sixpenny histories of bers of the Royal Society, upon the British Admirals.
During a great 16th February, anno domini 1818, conflict between two French and Eng- when the whole composition was delish men-of-war, an unlucky shot came livered, in due form, over a green athwart the hen-coop of our vessel, and table, by the monotonous lips of Mr set' at liberty such of its captives as Napier himself.
Upon the whole, it did not kill or maim. Among the the 16th February is still remembered first to escape was a little insignificant with pleasure at the Royal Society, as pullet, which immediately flew as high a day of respite from quartz, and mias its wings could carry it; and hav- ca-slate, and oyster-shells, but the ing taken its station exactly above the case is very different with such readers British Jack, there established itself as have had to go through the Essay as commander-in-chief on the occa- by dint of spontaneous study,
and sion-repelling the French shots with who have sat down with an intention a feeble scream, and backing the Eng- of ascertaining what the fifty-four harlish broadsides with a crowing lo lequins would be at. Triumphe at the very top of its treble. To have done with metaphors, Mr
The same ludicrous ilea reminds us Napier proposes to illustrate, first the of what we have ourselves often wit- scope, and then the influence, of Lord nessed, the absurdly important manner Bacon's philosophy. With regard to in which a little messin-whelp dis- its scope, his remarks are in the last charges the duties or a watch-dog. degree heavy, superfluous, and unproThe noble mastifflurks couchant in his fitable; and it is with a miserable bad lair, ready to spring forth when there grace that he comes hobbling in the comes an occasion, but not fancying wake of such a writer as Mr Stewart. or fearing an enemy in every one All that Mr Napier advances on thissubwhose footstep approaches his habita. ject, has the same character of secondtion. The Catulus is a more obstre- hand feebleness and tarnished repetiperous, if not a more effective guard- tion. It operates like an anticlimax, ian. There it sits snuffing the wind and has the absurd aspect of a smaller for offence, and pursuing, with a yelp wedge put into the empty space
which from the house-top, every traveller has already been opened by a larger upon the highway. Such defenders
Surely no person, endowed with are more trouble than benefit to those any force of mind, could occupy such a situation without impatience and ers themselves, or concerned in partichagrin ; at least, if he perceived in cular discoveries or additions made to what circumstances he stood. To as- science. sist in diffusing truths not generally In order to satisfy our readers that known, is an office which no one need we have not been misrepresenting the disdain, although these truths may be merits of this illustrious F.R.S. E. we the production of another's lucubra- shall quote one of the most promitions; but to state in an inferior form nent, elaborate, and imposing of his what has been already well stated and paragraphs, which for crudeness, tameunderstood, betrays a degree of humi- ness, obscurity, triteness, and all the lity for which a person will hardly ob- other magnificencies of dulness, seems tain much approbation in this wicked to us to be well nigh entitled to the world-except, perhaps, in the Royal reputation of an unique. The satisfied Society of Edinburgh, or the Supple- air with which he hugs himself upon ment to the Encyclopædia Britannica. his nothings, reminds us of that mer
As to Mr Napier's illustrations of ciful arrangement of Providence, in the influence of Lord Bacon's philo- virtue of which parents are commonly sophy, they are certainly misnamed. most fond of the most rickety of their They are not illustrations of the man- children-perpetually pluming themner in which his writings operated in selves upon what procures for them, advancing the progress of science, but if they knew it, not the envy, but the a mere mechanical collection of quota- pity, of their neighbours. tions, loosely strung together, and
“ It would require a complete analysis tending to shew, that Lord Bacon's of the Novum Organum to furnish an adewritings were known and admired by quate idea of the value of Bacon's services the learned throughout Europe, more in this important department of philosophy ; extensively, and at an earlier period, but the fundamental rules of his method than is generally supposed. Perhaps may be comprehended in a few sentences. Mr N. deserves some small credit for They seem all to be founded upon the fol. his industry in bringing them together lowing principles : first, That it is the busifrom Brucker and the Dictionaries,
ness of philosophy to discover the laws or for rather more instances are adduced, thereby to explain appearances, and pro
causes that operate in Nature, in order we believe, than those cited in Mr duce new effects : next, That we are inStewart's dissertation. But it is ra- capable of discovering these laws or causes ther too much to give this species of in any other way than by attending to the piddling the imposing title of illustra- circumstances in which they operate : and, tions of Lord Bacon's philosophy. Lastly, That the mind is naturally disposed The suffrages of the learned among systems, before having made all the inquiries
to run into general conclusions, and to form Bacon's contemporaries, or the succeeding generation, are of little im- these principles, he shows, that all sound
In conformity with
necessary to truth. portance, when we know that all the philosophy must proceed from facts ; that most important discoveries in physics, the facts in every case must be carefully in this country, have confessedly been collected and compared ; and that in all made under the iminediate influence our reasonings about them, the natural tenof the Verulamian philosophy; and dency of the mind to generalize must be that the discoveries of foreigners, if carefully repressed. The spurious method not all made under the guidance of of induction is that which proceeds suddenly that system, were not accomplished by amined to the most general conclusions.
from particulars scantily collected or ill exthe light of any different and better The true method is that which lays a wide system of logic, but by the unaided basis in observations and experiments, and ingenuity and good fortune of the in- which generalizes slowly ; advancing grad. ventors themselves. The ponderousually from particulars to generals, from machinery, got up by Mr Napier, works what is less general to what is more general, very hard upon the fulcrum of the till the inquiry ends in truths that appear to reader's patience, but answers hardly be universal." any purpose in the end. The inciden- It is pleasing, after speculating for tal mentions of Bacon, which have been a few moments on the pert and useless collected by him from foreign works, productions of a pretender, to turn to prove almost nothing, since the greater something like the sincerity of real number of the writers he quotes were study, and the simplicity of real wisspeculative men, and not experiment- dom. To an edition of the Essays