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Dwarf Hybrid Perpetual Roses.
These are pretty little gems, occupying, in this family, the place of the De Meaux and Pompon roses among the Provence, and the Burgundy among the French. There seems among roses that have been long under cultivation an inclination to produce these pretty pigmies. There are but few worthy of culture, and Pompon or Ernestine de Barante, with charming light pink flowers, is one the most distinct. Pompon de St. Radegonde, with rather larger flowers of a deep crimson, Vicomtesse de Bellevalle, and Leonie Verger, with rose-coloured pretty little flowers, are all distinct; and Pauline Bonaparte, with small nicely-shaped flowers of a pure white, completes the list.
These dwarf autumnal roses are rather delicate in their habits, and not at all adapted for standards; in light rich favourable soils, and in a mild climate, they would form beautiful edging plants, and, as little pet plants for pot culture, they are esteemed by lady amateurs.
All the robust-growing varieties of this family form admirable standards, and are particularly well adapted for planting in rows by the sides of walks, giving them plenty of manure, and the necessary culture required by these roses to make them bloom freely in autumn — t. e. removing a portion of their bloom buds in June; thus, if there are ten clusters of bloom making their appearance, cut off five to within about three buds of the base of each shoot: these will soon push forth, and give fine flowers in August. Constant care should be taken to remove in the same manner all the clusters of blooms as soon as they fade. Baronne Prevost and a few others'are very apt to make barren shoots without terminal flowers. As soon as this can be ascertained, cut all such shoots to within six or eight buds of their base; they will then, in most cases, give fertile branches: in short, these roses require much summer pruning and attention to make them flower in great perfection in autumn.
For beds of dwarf trees or bushes, perhaps no roses are so admirably adapted. The summer thinning and pruning above recommended is quite necessary, and they will amply repay any extra care; for this kind of culture, however— I speak from the firmest convictions, brought on by experience—there is no mode equal to the removal system; generally this may be done biennially, but in light, poor, easily exhausted soils, it may be done annually; early in November is the best period, and the mode very simple: — Take up every plant carefully, and shorten any long straggling roots to within the compass of the usual mass of fibrous roots; stir the border well with Winton Parkes' steel forks to the depth of twenty inches, then replant the trees, giving to each one or two shovelsful of rotten manure and loam, equal parts if the soil be light and sandy; rotten manure and road sand if it be cold and heavy; one shovelful will do if the trees are removed annually, two will be required if they are removed biennially. Standards, when they do not flourish and give their flowers in autumn, may be treated in the same manner with great advantage.
As pillar roses some of the vigorous-growing varieties are highly eligible; they should be treated in the same manner as recommended for summer pillar roses, given in p. 35. They will cover a pole about eight feet high well, but unless in very rich soils they cannot be depended upon to form a healthy pillar of greater height. Baronne Prevost, Caroline de Sansal, Dr. Marx, Robin Hood, Jules Margottin, Madame Laffay, Beranger, Louise Peyronny, Baronne Hallez, and Madame Fremion, are all nice varieties for this purpose.
Raising varieties from Seed.
Raising new varieties of this family from seed presents an extensive field of interest to the amateur; for we have yet to add to our catalogues pure white, and yellow, and fawn-coloured Hybrid Perpetuals, and these, I anticipate, will be the reward of those who persevere. Monsieur Laffay, by persevering through two or three generations, has obtained a Mossy Hybrid Bourbon rose, and many of the finest varieties described in the foregoing pages. This information will, I trust, be an incentive to amateurs in this country: to illustrate this I may here remark that a yellow Ayrshire rose, now a desideratum, must not be expected from the first trial; but probably a climbing rose, tinged with yellow or buff, may be the fruit of the first crossing. This variety must again be crossed with a yellow rose: the second generation will, perhaps, be nearer the end wished for. Again, the amateur must bring perseverance and skill into action; and then if, in the third generation, a bright yellow climbing rose be obtained, its possession will amply repay the labour bestowed: but these light gardening operations are not labour; they are a delightful amusement to a refined mind, and lead it to reflect on the wonderful infinities of nature.
Madame Laffay is an excellent seed-bearing rose: this may be fertilized with the Bourbon Gloire de Rosomanes, and with Comte Bobrinsky. Dr. Marx may be crossed with the Bourbon Paul Joseph, and with the Bourbon Le Grenadier. These should all be planted against a south wall, so that their flowers expand at the same time; and they will probably give some fine autumnal roses, brilliant in colour and very double. For fawn-coloured or yellowish and white roses, Duchess of Sutherland may be fertilized with the Tea-scented roses, Victoria and Safrano. These must all have a south wall. These hints may possibly be considered meagre and incomplete; but I trust it will be seen how much depends upon the enterprise and taste of the cultivator.
THE BOURBON ROSE.
It is now, perhaps, about twenty years since a beautiful semi-double rose, with brilliant rosecoloured flowers, prominent buds, and nearly evergreen foliage, made its appearance in this country, under the name of the "LTle de Bourbon Rose," said to have been imported from the Mauritius to France in 1822, by M. Noisette. It attracted attention by its peculiar habit, but more particularly by its abundant autumnal flowering; still such was the lukewarmness of English rose amateurs, that no attempts were made to improve this pretty, imperfect rose, by raising seedlings from it, though it bore seed in large quantities. This pleasing task has been left to our rose-loving neighbours the French, who have