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ADDRESS OF THE REV. THOMAS GOADBY, B.A., OF DERBY, At the Baptist Union Missionary Meeting, held at the Union
Chapel, Manchester, October 8th, 1872. The subject upon which I shall en- the Orissa missionaries in the cause of deavour to speak to you, and for which humanity and education. Still further, I would ask your kind and indulgent it is fifty years last spring since the attention is chosen for me by circum- Orissa Mission was established. This stances. I have the bonour to repre- is the jubilee year of the Mission. Un. gent on this occasion the Orissa Mission der such circumstances I feel that my La separate and independent branch subject is chosen for me, and that I of Baptist Mission work in India. But should be wanting in good taste as I little is known, I fear, of this Christian should certainly be wanting in my duty enterprise in Orissa. The mission is to the Mission, if I did not use this opamong the obscure things of the world portunity to promote as far as I may and the Church. No report of it is be able, a wider knowledge of our work given year by year in the great mis- in Orissa, and a deeper sympathy with sionary anniversaries of Exeter Hall. the small and devoted band of brethren No place as yet is found for it in the who are labouring to evangelise the records of the great societies that an- province. nually urge their claims and relate their successes on the platforms of the May
SKETCH OF ORISSA. meetings. Our modesty and timidity are content with provincial anniversa
Orissa was selected fifty years ago saries, and a too restricted and local as the sphere of the General Baptist support. But recent events have Foreign Missionary Society by the adbrought Orissa itself into public notice. vice of that illustrious trio of heroic The calamities and sorrows of the pro- men at Serampore—Dr. Carey, Dr. vince have awakened the attention of Marshman, and Mr. Ward. It was seIndian legislators and called forth the lected as a wide field, distinct and sympathies of the English nation. The separate from all others, and then Government has lately spent about two wholly unoccupied. Orissa lies, you millions sterling in measures for the will remember, on the shores of the prevention of famine by public works Bay of Bengal not quite midway befor the husbanding and control of the tween Calcutta and Madras. It is a water supply of the province. The province about the size of Scotland, late Governor-General was on his way with a population somewhat larger. to Orissa to see for himself its needs, It is made up of three districts on the and how best they could be supplied, coast, and nineteen tributary states when the dastardly dagger of the fren- that lie back among the hills. The zied assassin terminated his life. More- Delta, as the districts of the coast are over, an able and accomplished writer, sometimes called, has been formed by the brilliant author of "The Annals of the silt which the three great rivers Rural Bengal," has just published two bring down from the hills to the sea, volumes which treat of the province of and by the sand which the sea throws Orissa, and bring its history, its calami
up upon the shore.
The process of ties, its customs, its religion and life land-making goes on still, but less rabefore the notice of the reading world. pidly than formerly. Soine of the old The friends of missions generally, and coast towns are now several miles from the friends of the Orissa mission in par
Balasore was a maritime setticular, owe to Dr. Hunter a large debt ent in 1642; it is now seven miles of gratitude for his interesting and inland. Tamluk, the ancient capital elaborate work; and I would thus pub- of Orissa, was before the Christian era licly express hearty thanks for his washed by the ocean; it is now sixty kindly recognition of the services of miles from the shore. There is a local proverb which speaks of the surf of the with all its seclusion, is such a province. Bea dashing once against the base of Hundreds of thousands of pilgrims visit the hills. For centuries Orissa has this land every year. For two thouplayed an important part in the history sand years it has been the Holy Land of India. Amid the changes that have of the Hindus. It is celebrated in song swept over Hindostan, this province has and story as a region beloved of the been a place of refuge for exiled creeds, gods, a land that taketh away sin. To and old dynasties and races. For more touch its sacred soil, to bathe in its than a thousand years it was an import- divine rivers, to taste its holy food, to ant stronghold of Buddhism.
Five gaze upon its golden flowers and fruits, hundred years before the Christian era, to worship at its ancient shrines is to the sacred tooth of Buddha was brought ensure forgiveness, though sin may to Orissa; and six hundred years after weigh like mountains. Here are cities the beginning of the Christian era, crowded with temples. Here the gods Buddhism, expelled from India, had come down to dwell with sinful men. still a flourishing existence in this pro- Here is the seat and home of Juggervince. All over the sandstone hills of nath, the Lord of the world. Here, on Kurdha, in the district of Pooree, there the sands of Pooree, is the gate of heaven. are cells and caves carved out of the For twenty generations devout Hindus solid rock-teinples, shrines, monas
gone throngh life haunted by teries—which bear witness to-day of the yearning desire to visit this halthe prevalence and power of Buddhism lowed spot,” and bere hundreds of pilthrough many generations. Here, in grims come to worship or to die the dawn and twilight of history, Budd- lulled to their last long sleep by the roar hist monks and ascetics spent their of the eternal ocean.' Day and night lives in contemplation, while on the through every month of the year troops sands of Pooree the worship of the golden of devotees arrive at Pooree. For 300 tooth and the yearly procession to the miles along the great Orissa road every rural shrine impressed the popular village has its pilgrim encampment. inind as the car festival of Juggernath They come from remote city and hamdoes to-day. In this province the wild let, they come from hill and valley far aboriginal tribes held their own against away. They march chiefly on foot successive waves of invasion, and exist along burning roads, across unbridged at this hour in the tributary states, rivers, through pestilent regions of
one of the ethnical curiosities of the jungle and swamp, a great unfailing world.” In this province the last Hindu army with weary achiog limbs, and King of Bengal found an asylum lame and bleeding feet, blindly seeking against the Afghans; here too the Af- at heathen shrines that gift of peace ghans in their turn made a stand and salvation, which only the grace of against the Moghuls; and here the God by Jesus Christ can offer to heavy ravaging Mahrattas found a basis of laden, sin-burdened souls. attack against the Moghul empire until, in 1803, the Mahratta disappeared
SKETCH OF THE MISSION. before the advancing power of English
If the missionary to the Hindus Such is Orissa, where fifty years ago, needed a secluded province walled off went two brave and earnest-hearted from the rest of India by gigantic men to preach the unsearchable riches mountains, and shut out from the mari- of Christ. Their task was a great one. time world by impracticable harbours They were alone in the province. The and sand-choked bays, he could find no foe was in tremendous and overwhelmmore suitable spot in all the peninsula ing force about them, but they were of Hindostan.
not unharmed or defenceless. The But it is publicity and not seclu- first era of English trade in Orissa was sion that is sought for the kingdom an era of armed industry. Two factoof God. Where people most do con- ries in Orissa were very early founded, gregate, where crowds gather, where and lie at the basis of our greatness pours the living tide of human souls, and power in Bengal. One of them there should the standard of the was at Balasor, whither, indeed, after Cross be planted, there should the mes- a few years the other was transferred. sage of salvation be proclaimed. Orissa, The merchants who founded this fac
tory were soldiers as well as traders ; but one of the earliest is driven home' they had sometimes to fight as well as and one of the latest dies. For six to barter. So they fortified themselves long years the work goes on, but in a strong position. They mounted though strong in faith and strong in guns upon the ramparts. An armed hope they see not a single convert from sloop or two lay off the river, and the among the native Oriyas. It seems as merchant fleet, bristling with cannon, if all is in vain. They hope against commanded the Balasore Roads, sixteen hope. Not a single native of the promiles down. Thus, though Moghul vince breaks away from the traditions and Afghan worried each other, our of his fathers, and finds in Christ his merchants traded in peace; or should Saviour. It was as if God bad said, black-mail be levied by a belligerent “I will make your heaven as iron and chief and no fair concession satisfy his your earth as brass, and your strength deinands, these merchants, after the shall be spent in vain." But it was not English fashion, “ loaded their cannon, 80; they were clearing the way for fulit their matches, and told him to come ture triumphs. On the slope of a baron.” Our missionary heralds were armed ren hill I once saw two men, with four with other weapons and for other foes. stout horses and an iron plough, ploughThey carried with them the prayers ing up the heath for the first time. and good wishes of tight thousand Fern and heather and gorse had been brethren at home. They carried with cut away, stones had been picked out, them the prayers and good wishes of and now the virgin soil had to be upthe devout and self-denying mission- turned with the unaccustomed share. aries at Serampore. They carried with It was a work for a Hercules rather them copies of the word of God already than a farm labourer, for giants rather translated into Oriya by Dr. Carey,
One held down the plough, that master of many tongues, that he which again and again started up out might speak of Christ in all of them.
of the unyielding, goarled, root-enThey carried with them the grace of tangled earth, the other with all his God in their hearts, and the love of might pressed upon the handle of the Christ, and the love of the souls of
plough ; both shouted to urge on the men; faith steadfast and firm, hope horses, who struggled nobly at their undying and immortal, a holy glowing task. Only a small space was ploughed enthusiasm which found fuel for its after many days, and when it was done flame in the very difficulties and perils how vain the labour seemed! But byby which they were beset. Here, in and-bye that barren heath will grow the power of God, was their stronghold green with up-springing corn, and wave against foes of every guise. Here, in with golden barvest in the autumn sun. the sympathyand God-speed of brethren
So success came at length to reward were their ramparts and ships bristling the toil of the missionaries. A young with guns. Here, in faith and prayer, Brabman breaks caste, throws aside his were their cannon of long range. sacred thread, and is baptised in the Here, in love and enthusiasm for Christ, waters of the Mahanuddy. A friend was their lighted match and summons of his, of high intelligence and good to the fray.
social position, follows the young BrahThe missionaries (Bampton and man's example. A devotee comes next, Peggs) began their lonely and ar- puts aside his boishnob's chain, washes duous work. They learned the lan- his matted hair and filthy form and sits guage of the people; they founded at the feet of Jesus clothed and in his schools; they distributed tracts and right mind. Others come after. Here gospels; they put the glad tidings was a beginning of better days for of salvation into Oriya words ; Orissa. Here were souls won to the they got these words by heart, and Lord-picked men, selected by distinwent forth to street and bazaar and guishing grace to become pioneers of wayside to speak them. Within two the gospel among their countrymen. years they took their stand by the Tem
Here wa a little handful of fine large ple of Juggernath, and preached to seed, the first crop, and it was sifted crowds of docking pilgrims the glorious and winnowed of God for future hargospel of the Blessed God. Another vests on that heathen soil. missionary joins them, and yet another So the good work of grace began. and another (Lacey, Sutton, Cropper); The first missionaries continue their
toil and die, others fill their places; tion of a whole province, nay, of the help is obtained from churches of a whole world. Dr. Hunter eloquently kindred faith in America. The first says our fortresses, our embankments, converts serve the Lord and die, and our roads, our railways, our canals, our other and numerous converts succeed. iron-girded bridges, "We call these The venerable first projector of the our reproductive public works. Mission dies, and the poble band at the slenderest blade of grass has more Serampore; and now the Orissa Mission elements of reproduction and duration closes its first half century of work, in it than our inost solid edifice of iron what is the result? “ An immense and stone. It is by what we have imamount of indirect good !" says the Go- planted in the living people rather than vernment writer of the annals of the by what we have built upon the dead Province. “ Indirect good !" Yes; the earth that our name will survive in In. tax the Government levied upon pil- dia." Now, the Christian church is a grims is abolished, and the English living institution “implanted in the rulers of Orissa no longer compromise living people,” abiding and perpetuthemselves and their country by their ating itself from generation to generaconnection with idolatry. " Indirect tion. Its life is of God, and it congood !" Yes, the Suttee is abolished, tinues and survives, expanding and and living widows no longer are burned growing by its own law. It is not a upon the funeral pile with their dead work of man, “built upon the dead husbands. “ Indirect good !" Yes, hu- earth,” to decay and crumble before man sacrifices on the hills no longer the hand of Time. It is a creation of stain the earth they were supposed to God---not“ a slender blade of grass ". make fruitful. “ Indirect good !" Yes, but rather " a fruit-tree yielding fruit the marriage tie is more sacred in many after His kind, whose seed is in itself;" a home, and examples of the purity of and, as on the first creation, so in this social life begin to appear. In accom- new creation, God beholds His work, plishing all these reforms, the mission- and sees that it is good. I read in the aries bore an important part. “An last report of the Baptist Missionary IMMENSE AMOUNT OF INDIRECT GOOD !". Society,—"a trim model of an English “ Schools and printing presses have in- church is an artificial thing. It owes troduced a new culture and a new its existence to foreign benevolence, literature among the Oriyas." Yes, be- and its shape to foreign civilisation, fore Government woke up to the im- and with the failure of foreign resources portance of promoting education among it must necessarily fall to pieces." I the people, the missionaries here as am sure Mr. Lewis would admit, how. elsewhere founded schools, opened asy- ever, that the true church-the society lums for orphans, and for victims res- of the faithful-is of God, and possesses cned from sacrifice, erecting printing in itself a reproductive and self-propa. presses and began to scatter books, gating power. The history of ChristenGospels, Bibles, far and wide in the pro- dom during eighteen centuries abundvince. The first schools, the first or- antly shows it. Now, the planting of phanages, the first printing presses in one such church in a heathen land is a Orissa were those of the Orissa Mission. good-direct, positive, divine. It would So education and philanthropy prepare repay the labour of fifty years to do no the way for good government and the more. But to-day the Orissa Mission grander victories of the Kingdom of has a family of churches. This living Heaven.
self-propagating institution is found at But the good has not been all pre- Cuttack, is found at Piplee, is found at paratory and indirect. The Christian Berhampore, is found in the north at church, when once founded among Balasore, at Jellasore, at Midnapur. A any community, is a direct and posi- cluster of branch churches in most cases tive good. It is an institution of God. gathers about the parent church. CutThere is a vital and benigo power tack has three branches, and eight nain it. It is a spring of living water in tive preachers, with over 300 members the desert. It is a centre of life and in church fellowship. Other churches blessing whose influence none can mea- also are spreading forth their arms like sure, and whose existence rests upon the badyan-tree, each arm taking root the Spirit of God. One such church afresh in the soil it touches. Five or has in it the possible future regenera
six Christian villages, moreover, group
families together, and make green and Every cold season some of our brethren, fertile spots in the desert. Fifty years with the native preachers, go forth ago there was not a single Oriya Chris- upon a tour of evangelisation. One tian in the province. Now nine hun. has recently gone along the river Ma. dred faithful Oriya disciples testify the hanuddy, where, says Dr. Hunter, power of the grace of God; a thousand every rocky islet and wooded crag is more wait upon the threshhold of con- crowned, not as on the Rhine, with the version, having broken with idolatry, castle of a noble, but with the temple if they do not realise the full privilege of some god.” Everywhere indications of faith in the Lord. Nearly two thou- are found that light is breaking, that sand children are under Christian train- Cbristian books are read, that the ining; thirty dative preachers or pastors fluence of the Mission is felt, but preacb Christ to their fellow.country- everywhere the
cry men; a native college prepares for the for more frequent and longer visits, succession of the native ministry; an and for more light. Few in num. Orissa Home Mission, sustained by Oriya ber amid that large population, the Christians, sends forth an Oriya evan- faith and patience of our brethren gelist; the province is becoming pene
sorely tried. Every trated with Christian light; and all the year pilgrims come with monotonous English missionaries that supervise the regularity, but with little diminution work you may count on your fingers. of numbers. Every year 10,000 die on Blessed be God for these Oriya Chris- the way, or on their return. Many a tians—living witnesses of the power of precious life, and many an ample fortune His hand! Blessed be God for those is sacrificed at Juggernath's shrine. who have died in the faith, and gone to With what a power have our missiontheir eternal home! Blessed be God for aries to cope ? The total income of the these Christian churches in Orissa l- temple at Pooree is equal to that of 100 each a centre of spiritual life and bless- societies like the Orissa Mission; and ing-whose growth and development 20,000 persons-priests, warders, pilshall yet by God's grace bring the grim-hunters, cooks, dancing-girls, and whole province into the kingdom of other servants of the god, live by this Christ.
lucrative superstition. Besides this, the rent-roll of the heathen monastic
institutions of the province is large and FUTURE PROSPECTS OF THE MISSION.
ample. Every town is filled with temEncouraged by the blessing of God ples, every hamlet has its shrine, and upon the work of the past half century, the priests are everywhere a privileged the desire of the supporters of the mis- class. Vested interests oppose the sion is to seek greater results in coming progress of the gospel, as they oppose years. Yet difficulties of a formidable
many righteous reforms. character confront us. The staff of at home. The people are not homomissionaries is very small, and our ef- geneous. Caste separates them from forts to reinforce it become foiled by each other as sin separates them from sickness or death. The cost of living God. On the hills Conservatism is in Orissa increases, and there is scarcely elevated into a self-satisfied, self-coma proportionate increase in the resources placent religious faith. of the Society. The field of work the Khonds assemble, and offer sacrifice widens. The population has exactly and
prayer, “ that they may remain exdoubled since 1822. There are three actly in the state of their forefathers, millions and a half of souls in the pro- and that their children may live exactly vince. Our small band of missionaries as themselves." Everywhere some is only as five loaves and two small form of superstition, hoary with years, fishes among so great a multitude. and venerable by its traditions, enslaves Just imagine
nine or ten preachers and and debases the mind. Our brethren thirty assistants in all broad Scotland ! would often faint if they did not believe; With only five brethren in the south- they would say with Elisha's servant, ern part of Orissa, and four in the north, when encompassed in Dothan by the and not a single European missionary horses and chariots of the Syrian king, in all the nineteen Tributary States, Alas, Master, what shall we do ?” But there is a great deal for faith to fill up, the Lord has opened their eyes to see a great chasm for hope to bridge. the mountains full of horses and chariots
Once a year