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SCHOOLS. BIRCHCLIFFE. Our annual sermons were preached on June 2nd, by Revs. N. H. Shaw, of Dewsbury, and W. Adams, of Luddendenfoot. The collections reached the noble sum of £90 11s. 100.

BURNLEY, Ebenezer. On Lord's-day, June 9, after an address in the morning to the young by the pastor, two sermons were preached by the Rev. J. Harvey, of Bury, in behalf of the Sunday school. Collections £123 3s. 44d.

CROWLE.—On Sunday, June 2, the pastor, Rev. J. Stutterd, conducted the services. The children gave recitations and sang their anniversary hymns to crowded congregations. On Monday following a large company took tea, after which a public meeting was held. Mr. Mayhew, of Misterton, in the chair. Addresses were given by Rovs. W. M. Anderson, J. Stutterd, T. Ashmell, S. Johnson, of Epworth, and T. Foster. Collections £10 133. 9d.

DENHOLME.-Our school sermons were preached on May 12, by Rev. J. Maden, Shore. Collections £36.

LINEHOLME.--On May 26 the Rev. R. Silby preached the annual sermons of our Sunday school. The congregations were large at both services, and the collections -£14 3s. 74d.-were the largest which have been made on any similar occasion, being £5 more than last year.

MILFORD.-On June 9 sermons were preached by Rev. James Greenwood, of Chilwell College. Collections £12 4s. 6d.

OVENDON.-School sermons by Rev. B. Wood, of Bradford, afternoon and evening. Address in the morning by Mr. J. Binns, of Halifax. Collections £22 Os, 10d.-an increase on last year.

SAWLEY.-On Sunday, June 16, the Rev. T. Ryder preached the school sermons. Collections £18 5s. Od., being a considerable increase on previous years.

Hill, as senior deacon, gave the new pas. tor the right hand of welcome on behalf of the church. The Rev. J. Wilshire expressed his thanks for the cordial reception they had given him, and spoke hopefully of his work. The Rev. W. R. Stevenson, M.A., offerǝd prayer. Addresses were delivered by the Revs. H. Crassweller, B,A., (late pastor,) W. Underwood, D.D., J. C. Pike, T. Goadby, B.A., and Mr. H. Varley. The Revs. W. Griffith, and E. H. Jackson, of Ripley, offered prayers.

Rev. Jas. Brown, of our College, having accepted the pastorate of the church at Desford, near Leicester, commenced his ministry April 21st.

Rev. R. P. Cook, of Chilwell College, has received a cordial invitation from the church, Nantwich, Cheshire, and commenced his labours on the last Sabbath in May.

Rev. G. PARKES, senior student of Chil. well College, has received and accepted a cordial and unanimous invitation to the pastorate of the church, North Gate, Louth, and commenced his labours June 2,

BAPTISMS. ASHBY-DE-LA-Zouch.-June 19, thirteen, by C. Clarke.

BIRMINGHAM, Longmore Street.—March 29, two; June 5, seven; by L. H. Parsons.

Boston.—May 26, one, by J. Jolly.
BURNLEY.—May 5, four, by G. Needham.

CASTLE DONINGTON.-May 19, five, by W. Dyson.

CARRINGTON.—June 2, sixteen, by W. Burton, in the Old Basford chapel,

COVENTRY.-June 2, nine, by H. Cross.

HITCHIN.- May 30, four, by J. H. Atkin. son,

ISLEHAM.—May, ten, by G. Towler.
LONDON, Praed Street.—May 30, eleven.

LONG EATON.-May 5, fifteen, by T. Woolley, after a sermon by J. Stenson, of Sawley,

Louth, Northgate.--June 6, seven, by G. Parkes.

SHEFFIELD.— May 19, eleven; June 16, seven; by G. Hester.

PETERBOROUGH.—May 25, three, by T. Barrass.

STALYBRIDGE.-June 16, nine, by E. K. Everett.

TODMORDEN.-May 29, fourteen, by E. W. Cantrell.

MINISTERIAL. WILSHIRE.-On Tuesday, June 4, the recognition services of the Rev. Joseph Wilshire as pastor of St. Mary's Gate church, Derby, were held. In the after. noon Mr. Henry Varley preached from Heb. i. 3. About 500 persons partook of tea in the school-rooms, after which a public meeting was held in the chapel, the spacious building being well filled. The Rev. John Stevenson, M.A., a former pastor of the church, occupied the chair. The secretary of the church, Mr. Councillor Hill, gave a brief but comprehensive his. tory of the circumstances leading to Mr. Wilshire's settlement as pastor. Mr. Joseph

UNIVERSITY HONOUR.- Mr. Joseph Wil. son, of Halifax, bas obtained at Cambridge a scholarship of £80 in the place of the £50 one he held previously.

DURING the connexional year now about closing, the ancient church at BIRCHCLIFFE has had to mourn the loss of several of its members.

The name of SARAH CLEGG, of Hebden Bridge, stands first on our death list. Naturally of a weak and feeble constitution, she, at times, suffered a great deal, and for years was often absent from the means of grace.

Her last affliction was long and severe; still she was perfectly happy and resigned to her heavenly Father's will, and was able to meet death with calmness and composure. She fell asleep in Jesus, Sept. 7, 1871, aged 59 years.

RICHARD THOMAS, of Cote, in Wadsworth, departed this life, Jan. 30, 1872, aged 76. For some time our friend had been in a very low state of mind, and at length the worst fears of his friends were realized, and trouble and disease speedily brought him to his end.

BRIDGET GREENWOOD, of Fieldhead, also in Wadsworth, was the next to be removed from us. For many years she had been a devoted member of the Birch cliffe church, and attended its worship with great regulårity, though her residence was far away. During the last few years of her life, in consequence of distance and the infirmi. ties of age, her visits to God's house were “ few and far between," but still her heart was there; and she retained her hold of Christ, and her interest in His love, and so departed, Feb. 12, 1872.

DAVID CRABTREE, of Hebden Bridge, was called to exchange time for eternity in the early part of this year. Ever since the memorable “cotton panic” he had been incapacitated for much mental labour. Asthma was the disease from which he chiefly suffered; so that, excepting during the warm days of summer he was not often able to meet with us in the house of God. When his last affliction came he was found ready; and he died “ Looking for the mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life."

GRACE GREENWOOD, of the Hirst, was removed from us, March 13, aged 76. She was a distant relative of the late Rev. H. Hollinrake, and has now, we trust, followed him to the better country. Her end was peace.

SALLY HARWOOD, of Pecket, was the next to be called away. This friend was very old, and very infirm, and for many years had been in a state of " second childhood." Some of our older friends speak of her with great respect for her memory, but she was hardly known at all to the younger members of the church. As long as health and strength and intellect permitted she

attended the services of the sanctuary, but for many long years she had been unable to do so. She died May 23, 1872, as she was getting fast towards 87 years of age.

On the same day, in the afternoon, we sustained another loss in the removal of John LORD, of Hawksclough. Of bim we may say, he came “to his grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in his season,” for though seventy-nine years of age, the faculties of both mind and body were good to the last. He was a Christian of a high order, and was much attached to the house and service and worship of God, never absenting himself unless from some unavoidable cause; and he was pre-emi. nently a man of peace. For some weeks his health had been failing, and he was unable to meet with us in God's house. But early in May, being a little better, he came again one Sunday afternoon, though he had a considerable distance to walk. This was his last visit to the place, from which, during his long Christian career he had never willingly absented himself. The next Sabbath afternoon be was seized again with illness, which continued to lay bim prostrate, till, on the following Thursday afternoon, the Master he loved and served took him home. He died as he had lived, resting on the Lord Jesus Christ; and those of us who saw him could hardly help saying, “Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his."

And then, last on our death calendar, but not least respected and beloved, must be placed the name of JANE LORD, of Hawksclough, the daughter of the above John Lord,

who, to our great sorrow, has been taken from us very suddenly, On the Friday and Saturday she was busy preparing for her father's funeral. She went to bed, and arose on Sunday morning in her usual bealth, and was for some time engaged with her Bible and her God; but while sitting at breakfast with her sister, her head dropped, and she became insensible in a few minutes. It was something like a stroke, or fit of paralysis; and by a little after noon of the same day, she breathed her last; and at once father and daughter lay dead in one house.

They were loving, and happy, and peaceful in their lives, and, in their death, were not long divided. One died on the 23rd, and the other on the 26th; and on Tues. day, May 28th, both were laid in the same grave, in the presence of a crowd of sor. rowing friends, who came together to mourn for, and to bury them. Our con. solation is this — they were ready; and our loss is their eternal gain. W. G., B.

Missionary Obserber.


THE CHILKA LAKE.* At sunrise on the 1st February, 1870, my boat was punted across the line on the Chilka Lake, which forms the southern boundary of Orissa. A few days before I had landed at Gopalpore, an open, surf-beaten port in the northerpmost district of Madras, consisting of half-a-dozen mercantile houses built upon the sandy ridges of the beach, with a distant background of peaked mountains, and clustering little colonies of hills projected out upon the plain. Proceeding north-west by palanquin, I had passed through Ganjam, once a great river harbour, and the official and mercantile capital of the province, but desolated in 1815 by fever, and deserted alike by the governing body and by its native population and trade. Of its former magnificence scarcely a sign remains, except a few half-fallen mansions, with hovels swarming around their lower storeys and seeming to grow out of their ruins. Lofty pillared gateways stand about the rice-fields, leading nowhere, or, a more pregnant lesson to human vanity, are utilized as entrances to the peasant's thatched cottage.

At Ganjam I joined the Great North Road, and a few miles farther on began to ascend the watershed which separates the river system of the Ganjam district from the Chilka Lake. It rises from a solitary rice country, where the children care trooping out of the hamlets to stare at my white face; while the cattle in the bullock carts took fright, and rushed down the embankments of the road, as my palanquin approached. The pass grew narrower as it rose beyond the range of cultivation, and the banyan trees had a ragged and battered look from half a century's exposure to the southerp Bamboo jungle laden with creepers next commenced to line the road, and before long its green masses had filled up the whole space between the converging hills. A wild peacock strutted along the wayside, daintily picking up his food, and spreading his tail in unconcerned pomp. At the top the pass

appeared to be little more than half a mile wide; but by the time I had reached it the sun had set. The northern descent was down a dark covered way of noble banyan trees, secured by the intervening hills from the dilapidations of the From underneath their spreading branches came glimpses of mountains on either side, exaggerated by the twilight; and as night closed" in I began to catch the reflection of the canoe lights flashing on the Chilka Lake below.

The Chilka Lake is a shallow inland sea, situate in the extreme south-east corner of Orissa. A long strip of land, which for miles consists of nothing but a sandy ridge little more than two hundred yards wide, separates if from the ocean; and the roaring of the exterior unseen surf can be heard far across the lake. On the west it is walled in by lofty mountains, in some places descending perpendicularly upon its margin, and in others thrusting out gigantic arms and promontories of rock into the water. On the south it is bounded by the hilly water-shed, which forms the natural frontier between Orissa and Madras. To the northward it loses itself in enilless shallows, sedgy banks, and islands just peeping above the surface, formed year by year from the silt which the great rivers bring down. A single narrow mouth, cut through the sandy ridge, connects it with the sea. Through this the tide comes rushing and storming against the outward currents; at certain sea. song throwing itself up in pyramidal billows topped with


and looking like a boiling river in which no boat could live.

Thus hemmed in between the moun. tains and the sea, the Chilka spreads itself out into a pear-shaped expanse of water forty-four miles long, of which the northern half has a mean breadth of twenty miles, while the southern half tapers into an irregnlar curved point, and barely averages five miles wide. Its smallest area is as nearly as possible the size of Huntingdonshire, being 344 square miles in the dry weather, and extending to about 450 in the rainy season. Its average depth


* Orissa. By W. W. Hunter. London: Smith,

Elder & Co.

the sea.

is from three to five feet, and scarcely rivers, and separated by long gentlyanywhere exceeds six. The bed of the curving bays. lake is a very few feet below the level It has been necessary to explain the of sea high water, although in some growth of deltaic land in order to parts slightly below low water inark. understand the formation of a deltaic The distant inner portions of the lake lake. We have seen what results keep about two feet higher than the when the river gains a complete masexterior ocean at all stages of tbe tide. tery over the ocean, and also when the The neck which joins it to the sea is forces are fairly balanced. But when only a few hundred yards broad; so the river comes down languid, or too that the narrow tidal stream which widely diffused, the victory is with rushes through it is speedily lost in

The sand-laden tides and the wide interior expanse, and pro- currents of the Bay throw up a beach duces a difference never greater than across the mouth, which chokes the four feet between high and low water,

river and causes the formation of a and at times barely eighteen inches, lake behind it. while the tide outside rises and falls Orissa has formed one of the great five feet. It suffices, however, to keep battle-fields of this struggle between the lake distinctly salt during the dry

the rivers and the sea. It consists of months from December to June. But an inland hill country, with a strip of once the rains bave set in, and the alluvial land lying between the mounrivers come pouring down upon its tains and the Bay of Bengal. At some northern extremity, the sea-water is period, infinitely remote as regards the gradually pushed out, and the Chilka world's history, yet still commemorated passes through various stages of brack- by a local proverb, and very recent if ishness into a fresh-water lake.

computed by the epochs of geology, This changeable inland sea forms the surf of the Bay used to lash against one of a series of lacustrine formations the foot of the hills. But from these down the western shores of the Bay of hills two great river-systems issued, Bengal. The strong monsoon and charged with tons of silt, which they violent currents which sweep from the deposited as soon as they emerged on south during eight months of the year the more equable levels beneath. have thrown up ridges of sand, in some During ages they have been patiently places rising into lofty yellow cliffs carrying their burden of sand and along the coast. An eternal war goes

slime from the interior highlands, and on between the rivers and the sea : the making it into new land at the ocean's former struggling to find vent for their edge. The sea has thus been slowly columns of water and silt; the latter pushed back, and a strip of alluvial repelling them with its sand-laden country, 150 miles long by about 50 currents, and giving a northward bend broad, has been formed. It is this to their estuaries as they enter the strip of country which constitutes the Bay. Where the river has the com- lowlands of Orissa. plete mastery, it sweeps out to the Around this vast shallow basin dwell ocean, scouring for itself a channel communities of men, as diverse in through the sand. When the forces their nature and history as are the are so equal as materially to counteract geological formations which hem it in. each other, a stagnation takes place, On the western side, where the mounthe sea depositing a bar outside the tains overhang the lake, wild races river-mouth, while the river pushes pick up a livelihood as best they can, out its delta to right and left inside. in a region of bamboo and endless There are therefore two sleepless arti- thorn jungle, hunting, wood-cutting, ficers at work forming land out of waging man's primeval warfare against water; the ocean which throws up its the wild beasts, and cultivating their sand, and the rivers which bring down highland valleys with a fitful tillage. their silt. The land grows at the Hamlets of fishers and salt-makers dot expense of the sea, and pushes itself the eastern strip between the Chilka forward in the shape of rounded pro- and the sea, and a sparse agricultural montories. Indeed, the Indian coast- population gambles at getting a rice line of the Bay of Bengal consists of crop from the temporarily dried-up nothing but a series of these blunt shallows of the lake. At the southprojections formed by the mouths of western end, villages of boatmen thrive

by transporting the surplus crops of they will turn the lair of the savage Orissa to the Ganjam shore, in flat- beast into the fruitful field. Moreover, bottomed, coffin-shaped canoes. At the let us hope that these material transopposite extremity, where the rivers formations may be embiematic of those pour into the lake from the north, spiritual changes which still take place skilled agricultural communities live in the condition of mankind-changes behind dykes and embankments, reap- which shall result, not only in the exing rich crops, but every fifth or sixth pulsion of wild passions from the huyear swept away, with their cattle

man heart, but in the production of and their homesteads, by the floods, the "fruits of righteousness which are and fortunate if they can float on a by Jesus Christ unto the glory and rice stack or thatched roof till the praise of God.” waters subside.

As a great part of the land is covered with jungle an immense amount of labour will be required to bring it

under cultivation. In many places, MINCHIN PATNA.

too, it will have to be levelled and Piplee for Cuttack, India,

terraced before it can be properly irriMay 13, 1872.

gated. Of water, which is 80 essential

to cultivation in this country, there is BY THE REV. W. HILL.

happily a good and constant supply, In company with Mr. Miller I have there being, at the foot of the adjacent paid two visits to Mincbin Patna, our hills, several capital springs-springs newly-formed christian location, six which it is said never fail. The land miles north-west of Koordah. As the is, I believe, suitable for sugar cane, site selected for the village has proved oil seeds, cotton, &c., as well as rice, very unhealthy, and all the boys have so that with health, industry, and God's suffered from fever, we determined to blessing, the settlers ought to succeed. select another. Moreover, in addition The magistrate of the district takes an to its being unhealthy, the site first interest in the location, and has obchosen was both lonely and difficult of tained from government a considerable access; and as the boys were afraid to sum of money to be expended in roads venture out of doors after dark in con- and irrigation. sequence of the tigers and leopards, To the missionary in charge, the they naturally took a dislike to the amount of labour and anxiety involved place. Under these circumstances in the establishment and management there seemed no alternative but to re- of one of these christian villages is move to a more favourable situation. immense, as he has to combine in his On our second visit, therefore, we se- own person the offices of land holder, lected another site, and marked out the farm bailiff, builder, accountant, referee, road and plots for building a chapel judge, doctor, relieving officer, &c.; inand a number of houses. Many years deed, he has to be a regular factotum. a heathen village stood on the same In the past history of the inission it site, but it was abandoned in corse- has appeared indispensable for the quence of the incursions of wild beasts. missionary to become mixed up with The people have still some very strange

the affairs of the native converts. How traditions as regards these natives of could they have done otherwise than the jungle; and in answer to a ques

befriend those who had to give up tion proposed by the magistrate, as to everything for Christ—those who were why the village was deserted, one of rescued from a barbarous death among them said that “One hundred and the Khonds-or those who, more retwenty women had been made widows cently, have been bereft' of their through tigers killing and eating their parents through the terrible Orissa husbands.' If the ravages of these famine? As christian men and women monsters were anything approaching they could not turn their backs on to what is represented, no wonder that the outcast and the orphan. And in the people should flee to a less infested future years it may be seen that the locality. It is to be hoped, however, labour spent in instructing hundreds that our native christians will fare of children-the fathers and mothers better than their predecessors, and that of the next generation—in the truths by clearing and cultivating the jungle of the Bible, has been as profitably

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