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Missionary Obserber.

NOMINATIONS FOR THE FOREIGN MISSIONARY COMMITTEE. UNDER the new regulations the whole Committee, consisting of twenty members, retire every year. Sixteen are chosen at the Annual Members' Meeting, and four by the Committee.

Any Subscriber or Subscribing Church may nominate any number of gentlemen to serve on the Committee. It is, however, very important that no one should be nominated who is not known to be willing to serve if elected.

The list for the ballot will consist of the names sent to the Secretary, the Rev. J. C. Pike, Leicester, and they must be in his hands on or before the 15th day of June. No name can be placed on the list after that day.

CONTRIBUTIONS FOR THE MISSION-SPECIAL NOTICE. It is particularly requested that all sums to be acknowledged in the next Report may be forwarded to the Treasurer or Secretary during the first week in June. The accounts for the year are supposed to be closed on the 31st of May. It would be a great convenience if this rule could be strictly adhered to, but the notice to that effect was omitted in the last month's Observer.



Berhampore, Ganjam,

April 6, 1872. THE readers of the Observer will see that I have changed my place of abode and sphere of operation. Owing to the return of Brother Taylor, necessity seemed laid upon me to take charge of this station. I had purposed, as you are aware, spending the greater part of my time in direct work amongst the heathen, but the events of the last six or seven years have shown us the futility of making plans for the future. The trials and failures here have no doubt tried the patience and hope of our friends at home, and they have not done the less abroad. Health and life are beyond human control, and it is ever a comfort to know that “He who fixes the bounds of our habitation" can accomplish, by the feeble as well as by the strong, the purposes of His will. “He gives power to the faint, and to them that have no might He increases strength." His grace meets all exigencies, and the boundless wants of humanity can never exhaust it.

I left Cuttack with many kind wishes on the 2nd of March, and spent the following day (Sunday) with our

friends at Piplee. Our good brother Hill would have been very glad if my wanderings had come to an end here. Piplee is becoming increasingly important, and is one of our most interesting and hopeful stations. There is evidence, on every hand, of real progress. I had the pleasure on Sunday morning to preach to an overflowing congregation; and at the close six of the orphans were baptized. In the afternoon I gave an account of the work at Piplee. The schools here are under excellent management, and the fruit of so much careful training, and anxious toil, will be seen in years to come; a more hopeful band of children it would be difficult to find.

I continued my journey on Wednesday, and on Saturday evening reached Berhampore. Some of the elder boys came out for four miles to meet me; and when the mission premises were in sight I found quite a crowd of old and young to greet me. There was certainly no lack of attention and respect. The scene however of so much labour, trial, and suffering, produced very mingled feelings. It was pleasant to see those who had come out of heathenism, and others that I had watched from childhood and received into the church ; but for some days I realized a sense of loneliness that I had never ex

perienced before. Constant work I has a different theory, and the remedies have found the best antidote. I have which appear effectual at one time are received a cordial welcome from all useless at another. We have had five the European residents, and especially cases, and it has fallen to my lot, as it from the pious officers in the regiment has done before, to be both doctor and stationed here. The Madras army

nurse. One of the sufferers was a contains a goodly number of God- native preacher; and the anxiety I fearing men, and there are few regi- had over his case for twenty-four hours ments in this branch of Her Majesty's cannot be told. The symptoms were service that have not one or more wit- soon checked; but the most difficult nesses for Christ. The faith of the work is to contend with the prostration Roman centurion received the highest that follows, and without constant commendation from Christ, and the watchfulness and care, the patient canfaith of some of these soldiers ought to not rally. The first case proved fatal: put many christians to shame; the holy an interesting famine girl, she died in life of an officer of Government is an im- five hours. There has been a change mense gain to christianity in India. in the weather, and since then the Godly men, either in civil or military em- plague has been stayed. I never knew ploy, always command the most respect what “sudden fear" was till I had to among the natives, and in some measure do battle with this terrible scourge. at least secure the same confidence We are taking every precaution, and among the Hindoos as Joseph did trust we shall be spared. The promise amongst the Egyptians.

The pious

is as sure now as when it fell from the officers here have a little chapel of lips of the Hebrew bard, “He shall their own, and once a week in turn, cover thee with His feathers, and under conduct a religious service; I have His wings thou shalt trust." I conclude, met with them, and have been deeply begging an interest in the prayers of touched with their simple, earnest ex- dear friends in England. positions of the Word of God.

Since I left this station, a little more than six years ago, very great improvements have been made; a municipality, by order of the government,

REPLY OF GOVERNMENT TO has been created, and the town has CONFERENCE MINUTE. been completely renovated. Those who remember the town a few years ago

Cuttack, April 1, 1872. would scarcely recognize it now. Great Our friends will be interested to know concern was felt by the local officers a that we have received from the Governfew months ago, in consequence of the ment of India a reply to our Conference failure of the rice crop. It was greatly Minute on the assassination of the feared that there would be a second Viceroy. We were afraid of appearing famine. The Madras government sent, officious, and did not ask that the without delay, a special agent to make minute might be forwarded to the all inquiries, and provide for any exi- Government, or to Lady Mayo; but gency that might occur. Special re- we thought it right to send a copy to lief works were commenced, the rent the Commissioner, and in a private for all government lands was to be re- letter stated that if in his judgment mitted, a large sum was sanctioned to it appeared desirable to send it to the provide seed corn, and a still larger Bengal Government, we should not sum was given for wells and irrigation. object; but we wished him to use his Grain is scarce and dear, but at present discretion, and assured him that we there is no cause for anxiety. There should be satisfied with his decision, has been no rain in Berhampore for be it what it might. In reply, he said nine months, and the country all round that certainly he should forward it to presents such a scene of barrenness as the Bengal government; and we now I have never before witnessed. A few learn that it was sent by that Governdays ago pestilence broke out, and for ment to the Secretary to the Governa short time there was a dreadful panic. ment of India, and by him laid before Medical science, with all its discoveries, His Excellency the Governor-General has yet failed to provide an effectual in Council, who were “deeply touched remedy for cholera; almost every man by the expressions of regret and sym


pathy' which the Conference recorded THE LANDLORDS AND TENANTS on this calamitous event. The follow

OF ORISSA. ing is the reply received a few day


Piplee, near Cuttack, March 18, 1872. " From C. U. AITCHISON, Esq., C.S.I., In a recent number of the Calcutta

Secretary to the Government of India, Gazette a long correspondence has been To C. BERNARD, Esq., Officiating published in relation to certain illegal Secretary to the Government of Bengal. taxes wbich the zemindars, or landDated Fort William,

lords of Orissa, have imposed upon 14th March, 1872.

their ryots, or tenants. As this corre

spondence tends to throw light upon Sir,- I have laid before His Excel

what Orissa was, and would be, under lency the Governor-General in Council,

native rule, I will endeavour to present a copy of the Minute adopted by the

to the readers of the “Observer" some members of the Missionary Conference

of its principal features. By way of at Cuttack on the assassination of the

preface it may be stated that some of late Viceroy, and forwarded under

the estates in Orissa are under the cover of Mr. Mackenzie's docket No.

direct management of Government, 945, dated 6th March, 1872.

but that a much larger number are In reply I am directed to request

under the immediate control of zeminthat his Honour the Lieutenant

dars, or, as they are called by courtesy, Governor will be so good as to inform

rajahs. The amount of revenue which these gentlemen that the Government

these zemindars have to pay Governof India is deeply touched by the ex- ment is fixed for a term of years, during pressions of regret and sympathy

which period it cannot be increased. which they have recorded on behalf of

According, however, to the terms of themselves and of their flock on the

agreement for the settlement of their occasion of the death of a statesman

estates, the landlords are bound to whose untimely loss must ever be re

conduct themselves with good faith garded as a great national calamity.

and moderation towards their depenA copy of the Minute will be forwarded

dent talookdars and ryots, and to ento the Countess of Mayo.

force the strictest adherence to the I have, &c., c. U. AITCHISON,

same principles on the persons whom

they may appoint to collect rents from Secretary to the Government of India.

them.” But that these rapacious and

unscrupulous zemindars have long vioCopy forwarded to the Commissioner lated the terms of agreement on which of Orissa for coinmunication to the they hold their estates has been patent members of the Missionary Conference to all who have lived among the peoat Cuttack with reference to his letter ple; and more than twelve years ago* dated 26th February, 1872.

a ryot gave brother Bailey and myself By order of the Lieut.-Governor an account of the oppression to which of Bengal,

they were subjected under native rule. A. MACKENZIE,

Uwing, however, to the immense power Junr. Sec. to the Govt. of Bengal. of the zemindar, to the expense and Fort William,

delay of a law suit, to the fact that

any ryot who instituted legal proceed19th March, 1872.

ings or gave evidence against his land

lord would be ever after a marked man, MEMO.

and certain, sooner or later, to be ousted Copy forwarded to Reverend J. from bis house and land; owing, I say, Buckley, with request that the reply

to these circumstances, it has been of Government may be communicated difficult to bring cases of oppression to the Conference.

home, cases which the ryot to his cost By order,

knew, and which everybody else beK. Č. GHOSE, lieved, to exist. With the poor tenant, Personal Assistant to Commissioner.

therefore, it was simply the choice of Commissioner's Office,

evils. Either he must bear the illegal Orissa Division,

and crushing burden of oppression, or 23rd March, 1872."

* See Observer for 1859, p. 354.

he must place himself in antagonism 7. Present to zemindar's head agent. to his landlord, a course which would 8. Presents at a festival. probably result, not only in even greater 9. Present for renewal of leases. oppression, but in absolute ruin. As 10. Present to inferior writers. the less of two evils he preferred the 11. Present for keeping up establishformer course. It is possible, how- ment for collecting rents. ever, according to a Hindoo proverb,

Second-Casual exactions on special to squeeze a lemon until it becomes

occasions. bitter;" and to such an extent did these merciless zemindars, or their 1. Levy for supplies to camp of agents, squeeze their ryots, that the magistrate when he visits the estate. practice became simply unbearable, 2. Levy for supplies given to regiand come what might, they determined ments marching through the district. to speak out. Accordingly, as W. 3. Levy for zemindar when he visits Fiddian, Esq., a native of Lough- his estate. borough, the son of a Wesleyan minis- 4. Sum raised when zemindar goes ter, and a liberal supporter of our Mis- to bathe at Jajipore festival. sion) assistant collector of Bhudruck, 5. Cost of building temple. was on a cold season tour in a district 6. Fees when ryot's son or daughter not often visited by Europeans, a peti- is married. tion was presented by a number of Additions to rent when zemindar ryots, in which complaints were made

is in want of money. regarding the extortion of oppressive 8. Cost of feeding zemindar's horses. taxes by their landlords. On the mat- 9. Expenses when zemindar goes on ter being reported to his superior pilgrimage to Pooree. officers, Mr. F. was directed to make 10. Sum to meet any sudden demand further inquiry with reference to the on the zemindar. grievances complained of in the peti- 11. Cost of keeping zemindar's eletion. Happily Mr. F., having a good phants. knowledge of Oriya, was able to under- 12. Sum levied to fee officer who stand the people without the aid of an serves a notice on zemindar. interpreter, and went thoroughly into 13. Sum levied when officer is sent the case.

The result has been the to make an investigation or measure establishment of the charges. The land. Secretary to the Board of Revenue in 14. Sum levied when police visit the sending the case to the Government of estate. Bengal remarks, that “the correspon- 15. Fee levied by headman of village. dence reveals a state of relations be- 16. Salary of messengers employed tween the zemindars and their tenantry by zemindar. which, though generally supposed to 17. Payment for presents of sacred exist throughout Bengal in a greater rice brought back from Pooree. Each or less degree, has never before been so ryot has to take a handful, and pay for it. clearly and definitely brought to the Some zemindars, it is stated, take notice of Government."

more than these ; and though they are The zemindars complained of, and not all taken on all estates, many of whose names are published, are nine them are universal. As an illustration in number; and it appears that, in ad- of the way in which the poor ryots are dition to the rent to which they are gulled reference may be made to the lawfully entitled, and which generally telegraph expenses and the school subamounts to about one half the entire scription. Though the zemindars are produce, these rapacious members of at no charge whatever by the line of native aristocracy have been taking telegraph passing through their estates, money for the following objects :- the sight of the posts and wire sugFirst-Regular exactions taken every year.

gested to some one that they might be

useful as a means of getting money. 1. Postal es.

Again, the "school subscription" is a 2. Telegraph expenses.

tax imposed to meet an annual sub3. School subscription.

scription promised, but in many in4. Income tax.

stances never paid to the Government 5. Rent-day present.

School at Bhudruck. 6. Present to writer of receipts. Though the above contains a list of the principal taxes imposed, the zemin- uuder regulation VII. of 1822, section dars extort money or money's worth 3, be brought under the direct managefrom their ryots in various other ways. ment of Government."

1. Ryots are made to supply the ze- Surely tenant farmers in England mindar with cloth and other articles at will say, on reading the aboverates far below the market price.

"England, with all thy faults, I love thee still.” 2. The zemindar takes rice at low rates in payment of rent. 3. The zemindar lends rice to ryots

CORRESPONDENCE. and takes back eight times the quantity. [It will be understood that we are not

4. The ryots are made to work with- responsible for the opinions expressed out payment.

by friends who favour us with commu. 5. Receipts for rent are withheld and nications for this Department.] falsified till the ryots do not know how

THE ROMAN MISSION. their accounts stand.

And so a person might go on trying To the Editor of the Missionary Observer. to fathom the depths of cunning and Dear Sir,- It is with great reluctance iniquity common to the zemindars of that I write a few lines to you, but I Orissa only with this result, “ that be- do feel so interested in the proposed low the lowest deep another deep is Mission to Rome that I cannot forbear. found.” Indeed their depths of villany I have read with great interest in the are simply unfathomable. When called


of your Magazine all the remarks upon for explanations with reference to

your correspondents have made since their course of procedure these native Mr. Cook first introduced it, and I do princes denied many of the charges, feel with many others that it is of the and attributed them to malice on the

utmost importance that we send a right part of the ryots; but as many of them good man there and sustain him well. are sustained by documentary evidence, I am sure, Sir, we are well able to do and others by the testimony of one it. If it is attempted, I have no doubt hundred and fifty-nine ryots who were but that twenty £1 1s. subscribers a examined, there can be no doubt but

year might be secured in this district. that they are substantially correct. I am a poor man myself, but would

His Honour the Lieutenant of Ben- make one of the twenty. There are a gal observes, “It is intolerable that number of others who would do more people in the position of the Orissa even than this if appealed to. I might zemindars should exercise such tyranny say further, that I would give to the as is depicted in this correspondence best of my ability towards the erection over people who stand in relation to of a new chapel, if the attempt is made Government which their ryots occupy, to establish a cause in Rome. I do and they are formally warned that if hope that at the forthcoming Associathey continue to make any of the exac- tion some practical steps will be taken tions described, Government, exercis. as soon as it is possible to do so. ing its powers, will bring their estates Believe me, dear Sir, under its direct management. The

Yours very sincerely, correspondence, as well as information

JAMES GUTTERIDGE. which has reached him from other

Coalville, 14th May, 1872. sources,

" leads the Lieutenant-Governor to fear that the zemindars of Orissa are a specially unscrupulous and incor

To the Editor of the Missionary Observer. rigible set of men, in dealing with Dear Sir, I have read with sorrow whom strong measures are necessary:

and wonder the recent letters respectAs regards the past, Government still ing a proposed G. B. Mission to Rome, reserves to itself the power of treating and, now that it seems likely that the cases which as peculiarly aggravated matter will be really mooted at the and fitted for example render such a Association next month, I feel impelled course desirable ; but before passing to ask uestion which has forced definite orders the Lieutenant Gover- itself upon my mind. Have the friends nor desires that the zemindars named who desire the denomination to enter may be called upon to state any rea- upon a new field forgotten the urgent sons which they may be in a position and pathetic appeals for assistance to give why their estates should not, which have, once and again, reached

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