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CONTENTS. 7

PAET II.

THE ETHICAL SYSTEMS.

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Sokrates. His subjects were Men and Society. His Ethical Stand-
ard indistinctly expressed. Eesolved Virtue into Knowledge.
Ideal of pursuit—Well-doing. Inculcated self-denying Precepts.
Political Theory. Connexion of Ethics with Theology slender.... 46

Plato. Review of the Dialogues containing portions of Ethical
Theory:—Alkibiadcs I. discusses Just and Unjust. Alkibiades II,
the Knowledge of Good or Reason. Hippias Minor identifies Vir-
tue with Knowledge. Minos (on Law) refers everything to the
decision of an Ideal Wise man. Laches resolves Courage, and
Charmides Temperance, into Intelligence or the supreme science of
good and evil. Lysis (on Friendship) gives the Idea of the good
as the supreme object of affection. Menon enquires, Is virtue teach-
able? and iterates the science of good and evil. Protagoras makes
Pleasure the only good, and Pain the only evil, and defines the
science of good and evil as the comparison of pleasures and pains.
Gorgias contradicts Protagoras, and sets up Order or Discipline as
a final end. PolitiJcus (on Government) repeats the Sokratic ideal
of the One Wise man. Philebus makes Good a compound of Pleas-
ure with Intelligence, the last predominating. The Republic as-
similates Society to an Individual man, and defines Justice as the
balance of the constituent parts of each. Timceus repeats the doc-
trine that wickedness is disease, and not voluntary. The Laws
place all conduct under the prescription of the civil magistrate.
Summary of Plato's views 49

The Cynics And The Cyeenaics. Cynic succession. The proper description of the tenets of both schools comes under the Summum Bonum. The Cynic Ideal was the minimum of wants, and their self-denial was compensated by exemption from fear, and by pride of superiority. The Cyrenaic Aristippus :—Was the first to maintain that the summum bonum is Pleasure and the absence of Pain. Future Pleasures and Pains taken into the account. His Psychology of Pleasure and Pain 66

Aristotle. Abstract of the Nicomaehean Ethics 63

Book First. The Chief Good, or Highest End of human endeavours.
Great differences of opinion as to the nature of Happiness. The
Platonic Idea of the Good criticised. The Highest End an end-

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in-itself. Virtue referable to the special work of man; growing out of his mental capacity. External conditions necessary to virtue and happiness. The Soul subdivided into parts, each having its characteristic virtue or excellence 63

Book Second. Definition and classification of the Moral virtues. Virtue the result of Habit. Doctrine of the Mean. The test of virtue to feel no pain. Virtue defined {genus) an acquirement or a State, {differentia) a Mean between extremes. Rules for hitting the Mean 67

Book Third. The Voluntary and Involuntary. Deliberate Preference. Virtue and vice are voluntary. The virtues in detail:— Courage [Self-sacrifice implied in Courage]. Temperance 71

Book Fourth. Liberality. Magnificence. Magnanimity. Mildness. Good-breeding. Modesty 76

Book Fifth. Justice:—Universal Justice includes all virtue. Particular Justice is of two kinds, Distributive and Corrective 79

Book Sixth. Intellectual Excellences, or Virtues of the Intellect. The Rational part of the Soul embraces the Scientific and the Deliberative functions. Science deals with the necessary. Prudence or the Practical Reason; its aims and requisites. In virtue, good dispositions must be accompanied with Prudence 81

Book Seventh. Gradations of moral strength and moral weakness. Continence and Incontinence. 86

Books Eighth and Ninth. Friendship:—Grounds of Friendship. Varieties of Friendship, corresponding to different objects of liking. Friendship between the virtuous is alone perfect. A settled habit, not a mere passion. Equality in friendship. Political friendships. Explanation of the family affections. Rule of reciprocity of services. Conflicting obligations. Cessation of friendships. Goodwill. Love felt by benefactors. Self-love. Does the happy man need friends? 88

Book Tenth. Pleasure :—Theories of Pleasure—Eudoxus, Speusippus, Plato. Pleasure is hot The Good. Pleasure defined. The pleasures of Intellect. Nature of the Good or Happiness resumed. Perfect happiness found only in the philosophical life; second to which is the active social life of the good citizen. Happiness of the gods. Transition from Ethics to Politics 92

The Stoics. The succession of Stoical philosophers. Theological Doctrines of the Stoics:—The Divine Government; human beings must rise to the comprehension of Universal Law; the soul at death absorbed into the divine essence; argument from Design. Psychology:—Theory of Pleasure and Pain; theory of the Will. Doctrine of Happiness or the Good:—Pain no evil; discipline of CONTENTS. 9

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endurance—Apathy. Theory of Virtue :—Subordination of self to the larger interests; their view of active Beneficence; the Stoical paradoxes; the idea of Duty; consciousness of Self-improvement 99

Epicurus? Life and writings. His successors. Virtue and vice referred by him to Pleasures and Pains calculated by Reason. Freedom from Pain the primary object. Regulation of desire3. Pleasure good if not leading to pain. Bodily feeling the foundation of sensibility. Mental feelings contain memory and hope. The greatest miseries are from the delusions of hope, and from the torments of fear. Fear of Death and Fear of the Gods. Relations with others; Justice and Friendship—both based on reciprocity. Virtue and Happiness inseparable. Epicureanism the type of all systems grounded on enlightened self-interest Ill

The Neo-platonists. The Moral End to be attained through an intellectual regimen. The soul being debased by its connection with matter, the aim of human action is to regain the spiritual life. The first step is the practice of the cardinal virtues: the next the purifying virtues. Happiness is the undisturbed life of contem plation. Correspondence of the Ethical, with the Metaphysical scheme 121

Scholastic Ethics. Abaelard :—Lays great stress on the subjective element in morality; highest human good, love to God; actions judged by intention, and intenijjn by conscience. St. Bernard :— Two degrees of virtue, Humtimy and Love. John of Salisbury: —Combines philosophy and theology; doctrine of Happiness; the lower and higher desires. Alexander Of Hales. Bonaventura. Albertus Magnus. Aquinas :—Aristotelian mode of enquiry as to the end; God the highest good; true happiness lies in the selfsufficing theoretic intelligence; virtue; division of the virtues.... 123

Hobbes. (Abstract of the Ethical part of Leviathan). Constituents of man's nature. The Good. Pleasure. The simple passions. Theory of the Will. Good and evil. Conscience. Virtue. Position of Ethics in the Sciences. Power, Worth, Dignity. Happiness a perpetual progress; consequences of the restlessness of desire. Natural state of mankind; a state of enmity and war. Necessity of articles of peace, called Laws of Nature. Law defined. Rights; Renunciation of rights; Contract; Merit. Justice. Laws of Gratitude, Complaisance, Pardon upon repentance. Laws against Cruelty, Contumely, Pride, Arrogance. Laws of Nature, how far binding. Summary 129

Cumberland. Standard of Moral Good summed up in Benevolence. The moral faculty is the Reason, apprehending the Nature of

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