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concerned, but does not affect following sections; therefore, second and all following sections of No. I have authority to go to B for No. 2. This point should be thoroughly understood, as it is an important one in the handling of trains.

Orders Expire When a Train Expires. —When any train expires by limitation of time or place or when a train expires because of change of time-table or because it is annulled, all orders which it holds become void. This is a principle of operation based upon the supposition that a train order is issued because of the existence of a train and that the order should cease to exist when the train for which it was issued ceases to exist; otherwise complications without number would arise.

If engine 23 is given an order to run from A to B as an extra train, when it reaches B all of its orders expire, and if later it is moved to another point it must be given all orders necessary for its protection and movement.

Change of Time-Table. No. 7 on the old time-table is due to leave its initial station at II:40 P.M. A new time-table takes effect at 12:01 A.M. Oct. 25 on which No. 7 is shown. It corresponds in class, day of leaving, direction, initial, and terminal stations, but it is due to leave its initial station at 9 P.M. instead of 11:40 P.M. In such a case No. 7, of the old time-table, may assume the schedule of the new time-table at 12:01 A.M., Oct. 25, and then proceed as a delayed train. No. 7, which is on the road or due to be on the road, is a train of Oct. 24 and the schedule of the same number on the new timetable which is put into effect at 12:01 A.M. Oct. 25 is also a schedule of Oct. 24 because it is due to leave its initial station at 9 P.M., Oct. 24; therefore as this schedule corresponds as to date, class, direction, initial, and terminal stations, the train which is running on No. 7's. schedule on the old time-table may assume the same schedule of the new time-table.

If No. 7 which was shown on the old timetable was due out of its initial station at 12:15 A.M. instead of 11:40 P.M., then No. 7 of Oct. 25 could not run until 9 P.M. Oct 25 as the train which would correspond in date with the new schedule left its initial station 23 hours and 45 minutes before the new time-table took effect.

The rule for change of time-tables is quite

complicated because there are so many things in connection with making changes of time which must be taken into consideration; however, it is not impossible of logical interpretation. The rule is faulty in that it leaves to inference several things which it should explicitly state, but most of the considerations in connection with a change of time-tables are definitely provided for and there need be no misunderstanding regarding any of the schedules which are involved in a change if the intention of the rule is understood. One of the points which is left without definite statement is the validity of a schedule, the rule simply stating that a train will assume the schedule under certain conditions, leaving trainmen to infer that the schedule will be in effect, regardless of the fact that the rule attempts to explicitly provide for the taking effect of all schedules. Another point which is left to inference is the fact that the old schedule may be used on the old time-table over a part of the division and the new schedule over the other part of the division when they properly correspond, without violating the last paragraph of the rule, which states that only one schedule of the same number and day shall be in effect on any division.

I am criticising Rule 4 to this extent for the purpose of more clearly explaining its meaning. It is expected that two schedules will be in effect in certain cases, but not over the same portion of a division. That is, the train of the old time-table may use the schedule up to the time when the new time-table takes effect, at which time, if the new schedule corresponds as required, the train may assume such new schedule from that point. In this manner two schedules of the same number and day are in effect on the same division but not over the same portion of the division. .

No. 23 of the old time-table is due to leave its initial station at 7 A.M. and runs to F. A new time-table takes effect at 9 A.M., the same day, showing No. 23, exactly the same as on the old time-table in all respects, except that it is due to leave its initial station at 10 A.M. Can No. 23 wait at B, the station where it is when the new time-table takes effect and proceed as No. 23 when the time is up? The time is three hours later in this case, on the new time-table, than on

the old time-table. Under such conditions the train of the old time-table can wait at B and take up the time of the same schedule on the new timetable when it is due at such point. The rule presumes that the train of the old schedule was one authorized by the old time-table and still in possession of that authority when the new time-table went into effect. If so the right of the train to assume the schedule is simply held in abeyance until the train is due at that point.

If the schedules correspond as to number, class, day of leaving, direction, and initial, and terminal stations, the change of the time does not make any difference except that if the time is changed so much at the initial station as to put it on a different date from that on which the train left its initial station, then the train could not assume the schedule as it would not correspond as to date.

No. 10 is due to leave its initial station at 6 A.M. and its schedule on the old time-table is marked “daily except Sunday.” A new timetable takes effect at 7:15 A.M., Sunday, and the new schedule shows No. 10 as a “Daily” train; but in all other respects the schedules cor

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