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ductor and engineman to the train dispatcher. When orders are delivered in this manner they must be acted on as if “complete" had been given in the usual way. When an order is sent in this manner to a train, the superiority of which is thereby restricted,“ complete” must not be given to an inferior train until the signatures of the conductor and engineman of the superior train have been sent to the train dispatcher.

When a train is named in a train order by its schedule number alone all sections of that schedule are included and each must have copies delivered to it. For example, if No. 10 receives an order to meet No. 15 at F and there are five sections on No. 15, each section of No. 15 must have copies of the order delivered to it and all five sections have a right to go to F to meet No. 10. Train orders which are once in effect continue so until fulfilled, superseded, or annulled. Any part of an order specifying a particular movement may be either superseded or annulled. Orders held by or issued for or any part of order relating to a regular train become void when such train loses both right and schedule as prescribed by Rules 4 and 18 or is annulled.

When an operator has given a clearance to a train, or when the engine of a train has passed the train order signal, the operator must not repeat, or give the X response, to a train order for such train until he has obtained the signatures of both the conductor and the engineman to the order. The reason for this rule lies in the fact that when an order is repeated or when the “X” response is given it is a guarantee to the train dispatcher that the train to which the order is addressed will be held until the order is delivered to it and in case that the train is in possession of a clearance or if the engine has passed the train order signal, while such signal was in the clear position, trainmen are not held under the rules, so that the signature of both engineman and conductor must be obtained to the order to insure its delivery.

Forms of Train Orders

The Standard Code provides forty-two examples for the movement of trains. Two or more of these examples may be combined when desirable. When examples are combined the

train order as a whole should not contain any information which does not directly affect the first train named in the order. These forty-two examples are classified under twelve forms. The first is Form A, for fixing meeting points between opposing trains. This form is self-explanatory and needs no comment except that it should not be used unless the trains are actually to meet at the designated point. Form B is used for directing a train to pass or run ahead of another train. Five examples are shown under this form. Example 3, of Form B, provides for an extra train to run ahead of a regular train and the explanation states that the second named train must not exceed the speed of the first named train between the points designated. What the explanation really means is that the second named train must run with such caution as will prevent accident with the first-named train. When an inferior train receives an order to pass a superior train, right is conferred to run ahead of the train passed from the designated point. Form C is for giving right to a train over an opposing train; in other words this form is used to reverse the rights of trains. If the trains meet at either of the designated points, the first named train must take the siding, but if they meet between the designated points, the second named train must take the siding. Form E is for time orders. Four examples are given under this form, all of which may be used in connection with an extra train created by the third example of form G and the times at each point stated in that example have the same meaning as the schedule times when a regular train is named. For example, an order may be given as follows: “Eng. 77 run extra leaving A on Thursday, Feb. 17, as follows, with right over all trains: Leave A 11:30 P.M., leave C 12:25 A.M., leave E 1:47 A.M., arrive F 2:22 A.M.” After the above order has been given, in case it is ascertained that extra 77 will not be ready to leave A until one hour after that time, an order may be issued reading as follows: “Extra 77 run one hour late A to F.” Such an order gives trains receiving it the right to consider the time of extra 77 as being just one hour later at each of the stations named in the running order of extra 77. This saves the trouble of reissuing the schedule order as was necessary before the Standard Code was revised in 1906. Form F is for sections. Nine examples are shown under this form. The first two are single-order examples. The first example is to be used when the number of the engine for which signals are displayed is unknown, and this is to be followed by the second example. Examples 6, 7, and 9 are used to withdraw and reverse the position of sections. The explanation of these examples fails to state that in such cases all train orders affecting the sections involved should be exchanged, but it is important that such orders should be exchanged, and trainmen must bear this in mind when they receive any of these examples under Form F.

Form G is for running extra trains. Three examples are shown under this form. All three forms are self-explanatory.

Form H is for creating a work extra. Six examples are shown under this form. The first example directs an engine to work between certain points and times and when such an order is received the work extra must, whether standing or moving, protect itself against extras within the working limits in both directions as prescribed

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