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that the engineman will see that the switch is promptly closed and in proper position to avoid any danger to another train.

Train Safety

Both conductors and enginemen are responsible for the safety of their train and when any condition arises which is not provided for by the rules they must take every precaution to insure safety. Whenever any case of doubt or uncertainty arises the rules provide that the safe course must be taken and no risks run. In many cases trains may be delayed because of this, but it is better to have delay than accident; however, trainmen who have a clear understanding of the rules and their application will not be in doubt very often.

Train Orders

The most important point to be considered in the operation of trains on single track is the train dispatching. The time-table provides meeting points and passing points for all regular trains and if regular trains were always on time and if it was not necessary to run sections or extra trains, and further if it was never necessary to annul a schedule, there would be no need for train orders. But trains are late and business requires extra trains, engines become disabled, and in short everything conspires to make train orders necessary. It follows that it is of the greatest importance that the rules governing the use of train orders should be thoroughly understood. Rules 201 to 223 are devoted to the handling of train orders and they should be given careful study. Train orders are to be used when a movement is not provided for by the timetable. They must not contain information or instructions not essential to the movement which is to be made. The forms, which are given in the Book of Rules must be used whenever they will accomplish the result desired. Most all standard forms of orders are so worded that when an order restricts one train it confers the right which has been taken away from the superior train upon the inferior train; in other words, standard train order forms are known as double orders for the reason that each train order is given in the same words to all persons or trains addressed. When an order is addressed to an operator, which restricts the rights of any train, it must be respected by the conductor and engineman of such train the same as if it were addressed to them.

Rule 208 provides for the sending of train orders and states that the several addresses must be in order of superiority of trains; that is, an order must first be addressed to the train whose rights are to be restricted thereby. The revised Standard Code has given us two rules 208A and 208B; 208B is worded so that an order must be sent to the operator at the waiting or meeting point whenever possible. When a meeting order or a wait order is sent to the operator at the meeting or waiting point, it is called a middle order; that is, it is the order at the meeting or waiting point between the two or more trains which are concerned. When this middle order is sent to the operator at the meeting or waiting point he must deliver copies of the order to all trains affected until all have arrived from one direction, after which, if he has no further orders, he may take in his signal.

Rule 208 A does not provide for the order to be sent to the meeting or waiting point. The two rules are inserted in the Standard Code so that roads may take their choice of the two methods.

The Standard Code does not place any restriction upon the use of either a 31 or a 19 order. A 19 order is one which is to be delivered to a train while in motion unless such order restricts the train at the point at which the order is delivered, in which case the train must be brought to a stop before delivery of the order is made. A 31 order is one which requires the signature of the conductor before “ complete" is given.

Unless otherwise directed operators must repeat an order back as soon as it has been sent. Sometimes it is desired that an order which has been sent to the superior train should not be repeated so as to permit the inferior train to receive its order more quickly. To permit this, it has been arranged that the operator holding the order for the superior train can acknowledge the receipt of the order without repeating it. The rule governing this is so arranged that the operator must give his acknowledgment in the following form: “X 1o to number 21" followed by the operator's initials and office signal. Ten is the number of the train order and 21 is the number of the train addressed. If the line fails before an office has repeated an order or before the X response has been sent, the order at that office is of no effect and must be there treated as if it had not been sent.

It is sometimes necessary to send a train order to a train at a non-telegraph station, and the Standard Code provides that this may be done by addressing the order to the train at the point where it may be, in care of some person who can deliver it. In such cases the order is usually sent in care of the conductor of some other train. When the " 31" form of train order is used,“complete" will be given upon receipt of the signature of the person by whom the order is to be delivered. This person must be supplied with copies for the conductor and engineman of the train addressed and also a copy on which he shall take their signatures. The copy on which the signatures are taken must be delivered to the first operator accessible, who must preserve it and at once transmit the signatures of the con

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