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for a section, are taken down, the conductor will, if there is no other provision, arrange with the operator in writing to notify all opposing trains of the same or inferior class, leaving such point that the section for which signals were displayed has not arrived. If there is no operator, the conductor will arrange with the switch tender or in absence of both operator and switchtender, the conductor must leave a flagman there for the purpose. When the following section arrives and reports, the operator, switchtender, or flagman's duty is finished. The carrying of signals for a following section has the effect of giving the following section the superiority of both class and direction belonging to the leading section, so it is very essential to the safety of all trains that the above provision be strictly adhered to. The signals do not affect trains, which are superior by class and direction. When a train is running between the sections it does not affect the rights of any of the sections.

Rule for Flagging When a train stops or is delayed under circumstances in which it may be overtaken by another train, the flagman must immediately go back with stop signal a sufficient distance to insure full protection. It is the flagman's duty to go back far enough so that his stop signals will be seen in time by the engineer of the following train. The rule requires that he go back at once under all circumstances, as he cannot know just how close a following train may be. He must be supplied with the proper signals to meet the requirements of the weather conditions and he must use such signals in strict compliance with the rules. The matter of safe flagging is a very important one and no half-hearted service should be rendered. When the flagman is recalled he may return to his train, if he cannot see or hear a following train approaching, but if a train is approaching he must remain and stop it before returning to his own train. When no train is in sight and after he has been recalled he may place two torpedoes on the rail on the engineman's side not more than 200 feet apart, when the conditions require it, and then return to his train. Standard Rules do not require the use of torpedoes, except when the flagman is recalled or in stormy or foggy weather. When the track

is straight and the view is unobstructed, I see no reason why torpedoes should be used; neither is there any rule which requires their use, except in the interval when the flagman is returning to his train. The conditions which require the placing of two torpedoes on the rail are as follows: when a superior train is overdue; when the train which is being protected is in such a position that it may not be easily seen by an approaching train; when the flagman is a long distance back from his train, so that a train might arrive before he reached his train; or during stormy or foggy weather. The front end of the train must be protected in the same manner when necessary.

Train Parting

Should a train part while in motion the signals provided by rule must be given and care used to prevent damage to the detached portion. The detached portion must not under any circumstances be moved by any train which may be following, as the head end has full right to return to thedetached portion regardless of all other trains. When a train parts it becomes the duty of the flagman to notify all following trains that his train has parted and it is also his duty to see that the rules are obeyed and that no train passes the rear end and also that the rear end is not moved until the head end returns. The head portion has right over all trains to return for the rear portion and this is the reason why no train must be permitted to pass the rear end. The reason why the rear end should not be moved is that the head portion may know where the detached portion stands and should some following train shove the rear end ahead of it, the head portion of the returning train might collide with the rear portion. Should the head end run by a station or several stations it has the same right to return for the rear.

Pushing Cars

When cars are being pushed by an engine except when shifting or making up trains in yards, a flagman must take a prominent position on the front end of the leading car so that he can signal the engineman in case of need. This precaution is necessary to prevent the cars, which are being moved from being shifted against other cars or obstructions on the track and also to protect any persons who may be crossing the track.

Make Reports in Writing

It is of great importance that messages or orders respecting the movement of trains or the condition of track or bridges must be in writing. By having these messages or orders in writing they are more apt to be fully understood and then in case of error the responsibility can be more easily fixed.

Switches

Conductors are responsible for the position of switches used by them and by their trainmen, except where switch-tenders are stationed. At interlocking plants the switches are handled by the towerman and, of course, trainmen are not responsible for their position. A switch must not be left open for a following train unless in charge of a trainman of such following train. When trains back in on a siding it is expected

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