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In backing in at the meeting point the flagman should be sent out and the superior train brought to a stop before the inferior train passes the switch at which it usually pulls in. If the order contains the provision that the train will back in at the meeting point, then it is not necessary that the flagman actually stop the other train before the train which is to back in passes the switch at which it usually enters, but he must go out a sufficient distance to secure protection.

When trains of different classes meet, the inferior train must take the siding and clear the superior train at least five minutes. The superior train must stop at schedule meeting stations when the train to be met is of the same class unless the switch is right and the track clear. When the expected train of the same class does not make the schedule meeting station the train in the superior direction must approach all sidings prepared to stop until the expected train is met. The superior train must stop clear of the switch used by the train to be met in going on the siding. This precaution is necessary between trains of the same class for the reason that the Standard Code does not provide a time interval for the

variation of watches; the above provision being all that is necessary to protect trains of the same class and the five minutes clearance required of inferior class-trains is sufficient to take care of any variations of watches which may reasonably occur.

Train Movement When no form of block signal is used trains running in the same direction must keep at least five minutes apart except when closing up at stations to meet or pass another train.

Not more than two times are shown for a train at any station. When but one time is shown it is the leaving time unless otherwise indicated. A train must not be permitted to arrive at a station ahead of its schedule arriving time when an arriving time is shown. A train must not leave a station in advance of its schedule leaving time.

Yard Limits

Within yard limits the main track may be used protecting against certain trains. In case an extra train is given right over all trains it does not give it right to proceed through the yard limits regardless of the rule, which requires that extra trains must move within yard limits prepared to stop unless the main track is seen or known to be clear. The Standard Code does not attempt to give in detail the manner in which protection within yard limits is to be secured, because conditions and practices vary on different roads. Railroads which are equipped with automatic block signals may wish to take advantage of them for protection within yard limits. Some roads operate under manual block protection; still other roads equip themselves with semaphores on each side of the yard, which are held at stop at all times, except when trains are allowed to enter the yard. The exact manner of securing protection is left for each road to determine for itself.

Disabled Train

When one train overtakes another train, which is so disabled that it cannot proceed, it may pass the disabled train if practicable, and if necessary, it will assume the schedule and take the train

orders of the disabled train. When this is done the train, which passes the disabled train, will proceed to the next open telegraph office and there report to the train dispatcher. The disabled train will assume the right or schedule and take the train orders of the last train with which it has exchanged and will when able proceed to and report from the next open telegraph station. When a disabled train is passed it is not necessary to exchange schedules and train orders, if the train, which is to pass has right or schedule to make the next telegraph station. When one extra train overtakes another extra train, which is disabled, it may pass under the same conditions as regular train.

Train Unable to proceed

When a train unable to proceed against the right or schedule of an opposing train is overtaken between telegraph stations by an inferior train or a train of the same class, having right or schedule of its own, which permits it to proceed, the delayed train may, after consulting with the following train, precede it to the next telegraph station where it must report to the train dispatcher. If any opposing trains are met under these circumstances, it must be fully explained to them by the leading train that the other train is following. It is the author's opinion that this rule should not operate between sections of the same schedule in case the leading section is in any manner restricted by train orders. When this rule is used, trainmen must be sure that the overtaking train has full right or schedule of its own without pooling schedules or train orders with the leading train. If it has, it may take the leading train ahead of it to the next telegraph station. This rule contains grave possibilities for danger and trainmen must be very cautious in operating under its provisions.

Sections

In order that the train dispatcher may be in full control of all trains, which are started over the road, it is provided that a train must not display signals for a following section nor an extra train be run without orders from the train dispatcher. When signals, which are displayed

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