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first-class train, moving in the direction in which the time-table states one train is superior to another of the same class, becomes superior to a first-class train, moving in the opposite direction.

Extra trains are inferior to all regular trains, but when two extra trains meet the extra in the inferior direction must take the siding. Otherwise an extra train must be governed with respect to other extras by the orders which it holds.

Movement of Trains

Most railroads use a train register at all terminals and also at junction points so that trains may ascertain what trains have passed. At most register stations the conductor is required to personally register his train. This is done so that the information will be as accurate as possible, for the movement of trains depends upon the record. Unfortunately the Standard Code does not provide for the use of the train register although nearly every railroad uses it. The train register contains columns for keeping a record of the date, time, number of the train, engine number, conductor, and engineer, also

whether or not signals were displayed and the color of same. At some points where the registering of a train, by the conductor, would cause an extra stop, for important trains, it is arranged for the operator or switch-tender to register such trains as do not stop regularly on the schedule. Unless otherwise directed work trains should register every time they arrive at or leave a register station. When work extras lay up over night at a point which is not a register station, they should receive a train order stating what trains have gone so that they can arrange protection accordingly. The usual form for such an order is as follows: “All trains due at H before 6 A.M. have passed except No. 45 and No. 56."

In order to provide against complications the rules provide that train schedules, unless fulfilled, are in effect for twelve hours after their time at each station. When a train becomes twelve hours overdue at any station an inferior train may proceed against such train without train orders to do so and any orders it may hold concerning such train become of no effect. Any train twelve hours behind its schedule arriving or leaving time at any station loses both right and schedule and can thereafter proceed only as directed by train order. The words “twelve hours behind their schedule arriving time" refer to the arrival of the train and do not affect a train which has arrived at a station, say ten minutes before it is twelve hours late on its arriving time and is still at such station when it is more than twelve hours overdue on its arriving time, providing it is not more than twelve hours late on its leaving time. For example, No. 1 is due to arrive at B at 5 A.M. and leave at 6 A.M. In case No. I arrives at B at 4:55 P.M. and can leave B before 6 P.M. it does not lose right and schedule but if it fails to arrive before 5 P.m. it has lost right and schedule even though it can be ready to leave B before 6 P.M. But in such a case the dispatcher can direct it to run as No. 1 by giving it an order to do so; it being understood that No. I can leave B before 6 P.M. In other words when a regular train has lost its schedule by reason of being twelve hours behind its schedule time, it cannot again assume such schedule even though it may overtake it, unless it is directed by train order to do so.

A train must not leave its initial station or a

junction or pass from double track to single track until it has been ascertained whether all trains due, which are superior or of the same class, have arrived or left. This information is usually obtained from a train register.

A train must not start until the proper signal is given. This means not only the proper signal but also the proper signal given by the person in charge of the train.

When a train of one schedule finds itself on the time of a train of another schedule of the same class it may proceed upon its own schedule. Trains of the same class may pass each other without orders to do so and extra trains may pass other extra trains. But a train of inferior class may not pass a train of superior class without a train order to do so..

An inferior train which is running ahead of a superior train in the same direction must clear the time of such superior train not less than five minutes unless such superior train is a firstclass train in which case the inferior train must be clear of the main track by the time the firstclass train is due to leave the next station in the rear where time is shown.

An inferior train moving in the opposite direction must keep out of the way of a superior train and failing to clear the main track as the rules require it must protect as provided in Rule 99. An extra train must clear the time of regular trains in the opposite direction five minutes unless otherwise provided. An extra train need not protect against other extra trains in the opposite direction unless it receives orders with respect to them.

Meeting Points

At meeting points between trains of the same class the train in the inferior direction must clear the main track before the leaving time of the superior train. At meeting points between extra trains the train in the inferior time-table direction must take the siding unless otherwise provided. When a train takes siding to meet another it must pull in at the first entrance switch if possible. When it is necessary to back in the train must first be protected as prescribed by Rule 99 unless some other arrangement is provided.

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