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When two or more engines are coupled together the leading engine only will display white or green signals when required. The leading engine should operate the air and sound all the signals. In case of an extra train the leading engine gives its number to the extra. That is, if engine 234 and engine 235 were coupled to an extra train the .extra would be known as extra 234, the leading engine.

Extra Trains

It will be noticed that train signals, except the headlight, are duplicated, that is, one signal on each side of the train. This is done so that the signals can be plainly seen from either side of the train so that there may be no difficulty in the signals being easily seen.

When cars are being pushed by an engine, except when shifting or making up trains in yards, a white light must be displayed on the front of the leading car at night. In the daytime a flagman should ride the leading car to signal the engineman in case of need.

Each car on a passenger train must be con

nected with the engine by a communicating signal appliance so that the safety and comfort of the train and its load can be conserved. .

For the protection of workmen a blue flag by day and a blue light by night displayed at one or both ends of a car or engine or train indicates that the car, engine, or train should not be moved. Workmen must display the blue signals and the same workmen alone are authorized to remove them. Other cars must not be placed on the same track so as to intercept the view of the blue signals, without first notifying the workmen who placed the signals.

Use of Signals

In order that imperfectly working signals may not cause accident, which they were intended to prevent, the rules governing the use of signals provide that the absence of a signal where one is usually displayed or a signal which is imperfectly displayed must be regarded as a stop signal. A stop signal is the most important indication which a signal can give because a failure to obey it would be followed by the most serious results and it is for this reason that an imperfectly displayed signal or the absence of one where one is usually displayed must be interpreted as being a stop signal. Signals imperfectly displayed or the absence of a signal where one is usually shown must be reported to the superintendent.

At stations where a train is to make a regular stop the time on the schedule at that station is prefixed by the letter “s." There are, however, a number of stations at which it is not necessary that certain trains stop regularly as the business from that point is light. Whenever such a condition exists the station is made a flag stop for that train by prefixing the time at such station by the letter "f.” This letter indicates that the train will stop to receive passengers or freight and in order that the train may know when there are passengers or freight to go it has been arranged that a green and white signal shall be displayed as a notice for that train to stop. The green and white signal will not stop any train at that station except the one which the schedule indicates is to stop on flag. Whenever a train is to be stopped at a station which is not a flag station for such train a red signal must be used.

When any signal is given to stop a train (except a fixed signal) it must, unless otherwise provided for, be acknowledged by two short blasts of the steam whistle. A signal to stop at the next station or a signal to back the train must be acknowledged by three short blasts of the steam whistle.

The engine bell must be rung when an engine is about to move or when it is approaching a public road crossing at grade and in case of a public road crossing the bell must be kept ringing until the crossing is passed. The whistle must be sounded at all whistling posts. It must be understood that all unnecessary use of either bell or whistle is prohibited. . This is necessary in order that the usefulness of the bell, and whistle may be conserved.

Şuperiority of Trains When a superior train is spoken of it is always in connection with some other train. That is to say, a train may be superior to one train

and still be inferior to another train. For example, a second-class train is superior to a third-class train but it is inferior to a first-class train. It is necessary that this point be thoroughly understood in order to fully understand the rules for the movement of trains. A train can be made superior to another in three ways; namely, by right, by class, or by direction. Right is conferred by train order; that is, any order which gives an inferior train the authority to move against a superior train makes that inferior train superior to the superior train up to the time limit of the order or to the designated point, and in the movement of the trains there- .. after it is considered the superior train within certain limits covered by the order. Class is conferred by time-table; trains of the first class are superior to trains of the second class, and trains of the second class, are superior to trains of the third class, and so on. Direction is conferred by time-table and it applies between trains of the same class only. On single track each time-table states that trains in one certain direction are superior to trains of the same class in the opposite direction. Thus, a

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