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train is standing at a junction point or at the end of double track to meet an opposing train, the headlight must be concealed. This applies to all trains, freight and passenger alike. When the headlight is not concealed it is a warning to an approaching train that the train is not clear of the main track, but the fact that the headlight is concealed must not be accepted as a signal that the train is clear. The reason for concealing the headlight, under the circumstances mentioned, is so that an approaching train can see the switch and station signals and note whether or not they are in proper position to permit the train to proceed. But should a train be entering a siding where cars might conceal the headlight from the approaching train, the flagman should immediately flag the approaching train until his train is clear so that the approaching train having seen the headlight become concealed, will not take the fact as indicating a clear track. When two or more trains are taking the siding for an approaching train the headlight of the leading train should not be concealed until all trains are clear; if the siding is too short to permit all trains to clear, the headlights should all remain open, for a train cannot be considered clear of the main track as long as either switch is left open; under such circumstances the approaching train must slow down and proceed only as the way is known to be clear and the signals right. When a headlight is disabled the fact should be reported to the superintendent who should take steps to notify opposing trains.

The above explanation must not be taken as giving the superior train the right to consider an inferior train, which it holds orders to meet, is clear of the main track simply because the inferior train has screened its headlight, for the rules plainly state that under train orders trains will meet as prescribed by the rules. That is, the superior train must stop at the switch where the inferior train would enter the siding in case the inferior train is not there. The concealing of the headlight is to prevent blinding the sight of the engineman of the approaching train so that the switch signals and other signals cannot be easily seen, and is not intended to indicate a clear track for the superior, or approaching train.

Yard engines must display a headlight to the front and to the rear at night. If the yard engine is not provided with a headlight to the rear two white lights must be used. Yard engines do not display markers.

Markers

The following signals will be displayed, one on each side of the rear of every train, as markers, to indicate the rear end of the train: By day, green flags; by night, green lights to the front and side, and red lights to the rear; except when the train is clear of the main 'track, when green lights must be displayed to the front, side, and rear. The markers are very important signals and must be kept in good condition. At night the red light to the rear is a warning to following trains that there is a train ahead so that they may keep a sufficient distance in the rear to avoid collision with it. The green light to the front is for the purpose of permitting the crew on the head end to know that the train is all together. The green lights to the side are for the information of passing trains and also switch

men and stationmen. When the train is clear of the main track the green lense of the markers shows to the front, side, and rear and the red lense is toward the last car of the train so that it cannot be seen. Markers for night use usually consist of a blizzard light with three green lenses and one red lense in all standing, at right angles with each other. In meeting trains it is of great importance that trainmen look for the markers and if not seen it indicates that the train has parted and it has not all arrived at the meeting-point; this condition makes it necessary for the opposing train to wait until the markers arrive.

Sections

By the order of the train dispatcher, any number of trains can be run on one schedule, but when more than one train is run on a schedule all of the trains, except the last, must display green signals in the place provided for that purpose on the front of the engine. For example, if four trains are run on schedule No. 4, the first, second, and third train will display green flags by day and in addition green lights by night in the proper place on the front of the engine; but the fourth train will not display any signals on the engine. The four trains are known as sections of No. 4 and are designated as ist No. 4, 2nd No. 4, 3rd No. 4, and 4th No. 4, and are required to maintain their regular order while moving over, the road unless the regular order of movement is changed by train order.

Extra trains are trains which are not represented on the time-table. An extra train always displays two white signals on the front of the engine in the places provided for that purpose; this is done so that the train will not be confused with any of the regular trains; because of the liability of accident. In case two engines are used on a train the leading engine only shall display the signals. Extra trains are inferior, to all regular trains and are governed with respect to opposing extra trains by the train orders which they receive. On single track the extra moving in the superior time-table direction is permitted to hold the main track at a meeting point with an opposing extra train.

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