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exactly as indicated by the illustrations in another part of this book.

Torpedoes are used for signaling trains under certain conditions. This is done by placing one or two of the torpedoes on the rail on the engineman's side. When two are used, they are to be placed not more than 200 feet apart and their explosion is a signal to reduce speed and look out for a stop signal. The explosion of one torpedo is a signal to stop.

Any object waved violently on or near the track is a signal to stop.

Audible Signals

An audible signal is a sort of wireless method of transmitting information concerning train movement. Sounds of three different lengths of duration are used to indicate certain things. These sounds used separately and in combinations are made to give twelve messages to those concerned.

In giving audible signals great care should be taken to have the sound of the whistle distinct, with intensity and duration in proportion to the distance the signal is transmitted. Care must be taken that the blasts are uniform in length and that the space interval between the blasts is uniform, otherwise the signals are liable to be misunderstood. One short blast of the whistlu indicates stop and it is a signal to apply brakes. Two long blasts of the whistle is a signal to release brakes, and also indicates that the train is about to start. One long and three short blasts is a signal for the flagman to go back and protect the rear end of the train. Four long blasts is a signal given to call in the flagman from the west or south. Five long blasts are given to call in the flagman from the east or north. Three long signals given when the train is running indicates that the train has parted; this is to be repeated until answered by the hand signal 12(d), which is the hand, flag, or lamp swung vertically in a circle at arm's length across the track; three long blasts are also used to answer signal 12(d). Two short blasts of the whistle is a signal given to acknowledge any signal which is not otherwise provided for. Three short blasts when the train is standing is a signal for the train to back; it is also an answer to the hand

signal or communicating signal to back; when the train is running it is an answer to the signal to stop at the next station. Four short blasts are given as a call for signals from switchmen, and interlocker operators. One long and two short blasts of the whistle are given by a train which is displaying signals for a following section to call the attention of yard engines, extra trains, or trains of the same or inferior class or inferior right to the signals displayed for a following section. Two long and two short blasts are given when approaching road and street crossings at grade, as a warning to the public. One very long blast of the whistle is given when approaching stations, junctions, and railroad crossings at grade. A succession of short sounds of the whistle is an alarm for persons or cattle on the track.

Torpedoes are audible signals. When they are used they are to be placed on the rail on the engineman's side. The explosion of one torpedo is a signal to stop; the explosion of two torpedoes not more than two hundred feet apart is a signal to reduce speed and look out for a stop signal.

Rule ninety-nine includes torpedoes as a means of protection, but under this rule the flagman is directed to use the torpedoes when he is recalled, if the conditions require it. The rule fails to state what the conditions are which would require the use of the torpedoes. My understanding of the conditions which would require the placing of two torpedoes on the rail when a flagman is recalled is as follows: When a superior train is overdue; when the train which is being protected is in such a position that it cannot be easily seen by an approaching train; when the flagman is a long distance back from his train with a down grade in the direction of the train which is being protected; or in stormy or foggy weather.

Communicating Signals

Any device which enables the train crew to communicate with the engine crew is termed a communicating signal. The common apparatus for such signalling, at the present time, is an air signal device so arranged that trainmen can, from any car in the train, cause an air whistle

to sound in the engine cab. A certain number of sounds when running mean a certain thing, but when standing the same number of sounds has a different meaning. One whistle signal is not used because the train parting or the air whistle hose parting between cars would cause one sound of the air-signal whistle. The airsignal whistle, as a general thing, is only used on passenger trains.

Two sounds when standing indicates, start; when running two sounds indicates, stop. Three sounds when standing, back; when running, stop at the next station. Four sounds when standing is a call to apply or release air brakes; when running it is a signal to reduce speed. Five sounds when the train is standing is a signal to call in the flagman; when running it is a call to increase speed.

Train Signals

It is required by rule that the headlight must be displayed to the front of every train by night. When a train turns out to meet another and has stopped clear of the main track, or when a

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