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on different roads. In case it is desired to have a train make regular stops at a certain station the letter “S” is shown before the schedule time at such station. If it is desired that the stop shall be made only when passengers are at that station waiting to go, or to let passengers off such train, then the letter "F" precedes the time at that station and indicates that the train will stop, if flagged. The paragraph sign placed in front of the time at a station indicates that it is a place at which the train stops for meals. “L” indicates leave and “A” arrive.

A time-table is the authority for the movement of regular trains subject to the rules. It contains the classified schedules of trains with special instructions relating thereto. Time-tables are usually numbered consecutively in the order in which they are issued. A schedule is the most important information which is contained in a time-table as it prescribes the class, direction, number, and time for the movement of a regular train. It is very important that the student should thoroughly understand the difference between a schedule and a train. The schedule is the column on the time-table which indicates the

time, class, and days of the week on which a regular train shall run; but a train is the equipment which actually moves over the road on the authority of the schedule. That is, a train is an engine or more than one engine, coupled, with or without cars, displaying markers. In order that important trains may not be required to get orders against other trains of less importance the schedules on a time-table are divided into what is termed classes. That is, a certain number of schedules are designated as first class; these schedules are usually the ones which are to be used by high-class passenger trains. Another certain number of schedules are designated as second class and are generally used for local or less important passenger trains. The third class is generally used for important freight trains and the fourth class for other freight trains. In making up timetables some roads put the words “Daily” or “Daily Except Sunday,” or whatever days a schedule is to be effective, both at the head and foot of the schedule column. In my opinion such information should only be shown at the head or initial station end of the schedule because its appearance at the other end of the column is liable to be misleading in case a schedule is due out of its initial station on one day and into its terminal on the following day. For example, No. 25 is due out of its initial station at 7 P.M. and due into its terminal at 7 A.M. The schedule is marked “Daily Except Sunday” at both ends of the column; if an inferior train in the opposite direction reports from No. 25's terminal station, on Sunday morning, there is some danger that the crew might be misled into thinking that No. 25 would not arrive on Sunday, and, therefore, proceed against it.

Signal Rules

Each employee whose duty may require him to give signals must supply himself with proper appliances and keep them in good order ready for immediate use. This does not mean that the employee must purchase these signals himself but that he must see to it that he is supplied with signals and that they are in good condition for use. In the daytime flags of the prescribed colors must be used and at night lamps of the prescribed colors are to be used. All night signals are to be displayed from sunset to sunrise and whenever weather or other conditions obscure day signals. In giving signals care should be taken that the signal is given in such a manner that it will not be taken by a train other than the one intended for.

Visible Signals The Standard Code provides that red shall be used for stop and danger and that green and white shall be used when it is necessary to stop a train at a station to take on passengers or freight. A blue signal is to be used by car inspectors or other workmen, who may be working under or about the cars. The signal which shall be used for proceed is not prescribed, neither is the signal for caution. This leaves roads free to choose such colors for these indications as may seem best. Some roads use white for proceed and green for caution; others find it to their advantage to use other colors for these purposes, discarding the use of the white signal as a safety signal. The chief objection

to the use of white for safety lies in the fact that should a colored lense be broken it will show white and indicate safety when as a matter of fact, it may have been intended for a danger signal, but from my experience in this respect I think that the danger is more theoretical than practical. Fusees are used as a means of protecting trains and when one is burning red, it must not be passed until it has burned out; when burning green, it is a caution signal and may be passed, but the train must proceed with caution.

Rule twelve provides for six different indications to be given by hand, flag, or lamp. They are as follows: Swung across the track indicates stop; raised and lowered vertically, proceed; swung vertically in a circle at half-arm's length across track, when train is standing, back; swung vertically in a circle at arm's length across the track, when train is running, the indication is train parted; swung horizontally, above the head, when the train is standing, “apply air brakes”; .held at arm's length above the head, when the train is standing, “release air brakes."

Care should be taken to give these signals

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