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that a Time Table is the authority for the movement of regular trains subject to the rules. It contains the classified schedules of trains with special instructions relating thereto. By special instructions is meant information as to register books, bulletin boards, speed restrictions, provisional stops, the use of special tracks, etc.

A “Scheduleis that part of a time-table which prescribes class, direction, number, and movement for a regular train. The class indicates the superiority of a train, using such schedule with respect to other schedules. Direction shows the right of a train, using the schedule with respect to other trains of the same class. The number is the means by which trains are identified. The movement refers to the time at the different stations, which shows when a train using the schedule may arrive and depart. Each schedule has signs opposite the time given at certain stations, which indicate whether the train is to stop regularly at that station or simply make a flag stop. If no sign appears the train is not expected to stop at all.

A Divisionis that portion of a railway assigned to the supervision of a Superintendent. A “Sub-Divisionis that portion of a division so designated on the time-table.

A Main Trackis a track extending through yards and between stations, upon which trains are operated by time-table or train orders, or the use of which is controlled by block signals. The use of a main track is governed by the rules and the time-table.

A Stationis a place designated on the timetable by name, at which a train may stop for traffic or to enter or leave the main track or from which fixed signals are operated. Unless the name of a point appears on the time-table it is not considered a station under the rules.

A “Sidingis a track in addition to the main track, used for meeting or passing trains. It is limited to the distance between two adjoining telegraph stations. We are in the habit of referring to commercial tracks, which are used for loading and unloading, as sidings, but such tracks are not meant by the rules, when the word, “siding” is used.

A Fixed Signalis a signal of fixed location, indicating a condition affecting a movement of a train. There are a great many fixed signals

in use upon a railroad. Such signals as slow boards, stop boards, yard limits, switch signals, train order signals, block signals, interlocking signals, semaphores, disc, ball or other means of indicating “stop," "caution,” or “proceed” are fixed signals in Standard Rules. Whistle posts and public crossing posts are not considered fixed signals.

A “Yardis a system of tracks within defined limits for the making up of trains, storing of cars, and other purposes over which movements not authorized by timetable or by train orders may be made, subject to prescribed signals and regulations. Yard limits are usually designated by boards, which are placed alongside the track at the entrance to the yard, so that approaching trains may know when they are within such limits. The rules provide for the use of the main track within yard limits with certain restrictions, which are hereafter mentioned.

A “Yard Engineis an engine assigned to yard service and working within yard limits. It will be seen that when a regular yard engine is outside of its yard limits it is not a yard en

gine under the rules and cannot enjoy the privileges conferred upon a yard engine.

A Pilotis a person assigned to a train, when the Engineman or Conductor or both are not fully acquainted with the physical characteristics or running rules of the road or portion of the road over which the train is to be moved.

The foregoing definitions are very important and I wish to impress upon the student that it is necessary to become familiar with the meaning of the terms, as defined.

Rules for Single Track

All Railways use Standard Time. This time is obtained, once during every twenty-four hours, from some reliable observatory. Conductors, Enginemen, and such other class of employees as may be designated are required to have watches that have been examined and certified to by designated inspector.

Watches of Conductors and Enginemen must be compared before starting on each trip with a clock, which is designated as a Standard Clock. The time, when watches are com

pared, must be registered. When Conductors and Enginemen report for duty at a point where no standard clock is located, they should obtain standard time from the Train Dispatcher or from some Conductor or Engineman who has reported and received standard time.

All of the clocks used by the Company are not standard clocks. Those which are standard are so designated by a label.

Time-Tables

Rule four governs the taking effect of a new time-table. Upon the face of each new timetable is printed the date and hour at which it will take effect. From the moment it takes effect it supersedes the preceding time-table and all trains, which have been moving on the preceding time-table must be governed by the new time-table. If a schedule of the new time-table corresponds as to number, class, day of leaving, direction, and initial and terminal stations with a schedule of the old time-table, a train moving under such schedule will retain its train orders and assume the schedule of

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