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town, Chesterfield, Alfreton, Little Chester, Eggiuton, to Burton, and Wall, (where it crossed the Watling Street.) Thence through Sutton Colfield, to Birmingham, King's Norton, Alchester, Bitford, Sedgebarrow, Tewkesbury, Glocester, Berry Hill, Herefordshire; and probably by Abergavenny, Brecon, Landilo, and Caermarthen to St. David's.
" The ERMYN Street came from the eastern side of Scotland, and, crossing the Tweed, west of Berwick, ran near Wooler, Hedgely, Brumpton, Brinkburn, Netherwitten, Hartburn, and Rial, to Corbridge, where it joined the North Watling Street. Passing with that way the two great rivers, the Tyne and the Tees, it continued to Caiterick, where it divided into two branches.
« The western branch went with the Ryknield Street, as far as Aldborough, and then, leaving that way to the right, proceeded by Little Ousebourn, to Helensford, over Bramham Heath, to Aberford, Castleford, Houghton, Stapleton, Adwick, Doncaster, Bawtry, and probably by Tuxford, Southwell, and over the Trent to Thorp, (where it passed the Foss) Staunton, and Stainby, where it joined the eastern branch.
" This latter branch ran from Catterick by North Allerton, Thirsk, Easingwold, Stanford Bridge, Market Weighton and South Cave, and, crossing the Humber, continued by Wintring. ham, Lincoln, and Ancaster, to near Witham, when it was reunited with the western branch above mentioned. Both continued to Brig Casterton, near Stamford, Chesterton, Stilton, Godmanchester, Royston (where it crossed the Icknield Street,) Buntingford, Puckeridge, Ware Park, west of Broxbourn, Cheshunt, Enfield, Wood Green, and London. Here it again divided into two branches. The more westerly went by Darking, Coldharbour, Stone Street, and Pulborough to Chichester; while the easterly was continued by Bromley, Holwood Hill, Tunbridye Wells, Wadhurst, Mayfield, and Eastbourn to Pevensey.
“ IKEMAN STREET, appears to have passed from the eastern side of the island, probably by Bedford, Newport Pagnel, Stony
Stratford, and Buckingham (or, as others think, by Fenny Stratford and Winsborough,) to Alcester. It then ran by Kirklington, Woodstock, Stonefield, Astall, and Coln St. Alwin's to Cirencester, Rodmarton, Cherrington, Bagspath and Symonds’ Hall. From thence it is said to be continued by Cromehall to Aust, where, passing the Severn, it probably ran through Caerweut, Caerleon, and along the coast by Caerdiff, Neath, and Lwghor, to Caermarthen, and the Irish port at St. David's.”
The Foss Way, although adopted through the whole of its course by the Romans, was first, probably, a British road, as it forms a connection between so many of the British towns. It took its rise on the north eastern coast of Lincolnshire, and ran through Lindum, Lincoln; Rata, Leicester; Benonis, Claychester; Corinium, Cirencester; Aquæ Sulis, Bath; and Ischalis, Ilchester; to the great British port of Seaton, in Devonshire.*
“ The UPPEK SALT-WAY, which appears to have been the communication between the sea coast of Lincolnshire, and the salt-mines at Droitwich, is first known as leading from the neighbourhood of Staiosfield, towards Paunton and Denton; and then running not far from Saltby and Croxton, is continued straight by Warmby and Grimston, to Sedgehill on the Foss. Here it appears to bear towards Barrow, on the Soar; and crossing Charnwood Forest, is again seen at Stretton, on the borders of Warwickshire, from whence it is easily traced to Birmingham, and over the Lickey to Droitwich.
“ The Lower SALT-WAY is little known, although the parts here described have been actually traced. It came from Droitwich, crossed Worcestershire, under the name of the Salt-way, appears to have passed the Avon, somewhere below Evesham, tended towards the chain of hills above Sudeley Castle, where it is still visible, attended by tumuli as it runs by Hawling. Thence it proceeds to Northleach, where it crossed the Foss, in
• MS, communication of the Rev. T. Leman.
its way to Coln St. Aldwin's, on the Ikeman Street, and led to the sea coast of Hanipshire. · " In many places are vestiges of a continued road skirting the western side of the island, in the same manner as the Ermyn Street did the eastern, of which parts were never adopted by the Romans. There is great reason to suppose it British, because it connects many of the British towns. It appears to have commenced on the coast of Devoni, perhaps not far from the mouth of the Ex, and to have gone by Exeter, Taunton, Bridgewater, Bristol, (iloucester, Kidderminster, Claverley, Weston, High Oftley, Betley, Middlewich, North wich, Warrington, Preston, and Lancaster. Here probably dividing into two branches, ono ran by Kendal, Penrith, and Carlisle, to the extreme parts of the island, while the other passed, by Kirby Lonsdale and Orton, to Kirby Thure, from whence it continued, under the name of the Maiden-way, by the wall and Bewcastle, into the interior parts of Scotland.
" Besides these, and the separate communications between the different towns, there is reason to imagine that a general road rau round the whole coast of the island, parts of which have been observed near the southern coast of Dorsetshire, particularly from Abbotsbury to the isle of Purbeck; likewise in Hampshire, along Portsduwn Hill; and from Old Winchester through Sussex, on the tops of the hills between Midhurst and Chichester, to Arundel and Brighthelmstone. Also in Essex, from Maldon to Colchester; and in Suffolk by Stretford, Ipswich, Stretford, and Blythbury, to the banks of the Yar. In Lincolnshire are two branches, one running clearly froin Tattersal, by Horncastle, Ludford, Stainton, Caistor, and Somerby; and a second, nearer the coast, from Lowth towards Brocklesby, and both tending to the passage of the Hunber, not far from Barton. Also along the principal part of the coast through Yorkshire, Durham, and Northumberland. On the western side of the in-. land, it appears to have passed on the hills which skirt the
porthern coast of Devonshire and Somersetshire, and possibly might be traced through Wales and towards Scotland."*
British Coins. The labours of the antiquary are seldom more judiciously directed than to the investigation of coins, which at once act as the genuine links of history, and exlıibit the state of several arts, in the specific nature and the preparation of the material, and in the character of the device, and degree of skill with which the die is cut and the impress made.
It would appear, from the testimony of Cæsar, and the absence of any direct and tangible proof to the contrary, that both the aboriginal and Belgic Britons were destitute of minted money, at the period of that great commander's invasion of the island. It is believed that pieces of brass and iron bullion, unstamped, and rated by their weight, were then used as the medium of
traffic. • Commentary on the Itinerary of Richard of Cirencester, Edit. 1809. p. 111-117.
† The passage of Cæsar, on this subject, is so worded as to admit of a doubt, in the opinion of some persons, as to whether the brass money of the Britons was ninted, or was mere bullion, valued by weight. Those who adopt a reading to the former effect, cannot adduce any corroborative cir. cumstance founded on fact; and it certainly would appear unlikely that the people who were so rude as to use unstamped iron for money, should at the same time be so refined as to submit their brass to the process of the mintmaster. Dr. Plot, in his natural History of Oxfordshire ; Dr. Borlase, in his Antiquities of Cornwall; and Mr. Polwhele, in his History of Devon; argue for the probability of the Britons possessing coins, both of gold and silver, before the Roman invasion, although in parts of the island with which Cæsar had no opportunity of becoming acquainted. But it is obvious that a circulating monied medium of traflic is seldom confined to the bounds of one particular state, and is the most difficult of all circumstances to hide from the knowledge of an interested investigator. It may be remarked that the use of unstamped iron for money among the Britons, is not noticed, as an existing custom, by any writer subsequent to Cæsar. So rude a practice must be supposed likely to discontinue shortly after the superior convenience of small minted money was ascertained ; and such appears to have been thie fact, if we allow the first British coinage to have taken place between the dates of the two Roman invasions.
traffic. Large quantities of the latter, approaching to a square shape, and having a hole in the centre, as if for the purpose of stringing them for the convenience of the trader, have been found in Cornwall, and are supposed to be the iron money of the Britons.*
But the era of Cæsar's invasion was, in every respect, memorable to Britain. His expeditiou led to a more extended correspondence between the islanders and the inhabitants of the continent; and the increase of trade, and expansion of views, derived from that communication, are evident in the circumstance of several mints being speedily erected by the former people; the active and commercial Belgæ setting the laudable example.
The chief British coins which have been discovered, and may be considered as genuine, were struck during the years which intervened between the first invasion under Cæsar, and the second and more decisive by direction of Claudius. The earliest authenticated coins, which have been found, are those of Cunobeline,'t who lived from the reign of Augustus to that of Caligula. It appears that shortly after the art was introduced by the Belgæ, it was eagerly adopted by the principal Celtic sovereigns; and several public depositaries, and numerous private antiquarian cabinets, contain coins bearing impresses ascribed to various British states.
British coins are usually of gold, silver, and brass. In some, the gold is minted without any alloy; but, in most, both the gold and silver are much debased. Some coins attributed to the Britons, are devoid of any inscription, and are merely stamped with the figures of animals, together with unintelligible devices. These were, probably, of the earliest Celtic mintage. But in
• Specimens of the perforated iron plates discovered in Cornwall, are engraved in Dr. Borlase's Antiquities of that county, and again in Gough's edition of the Britannia.
+ See an“ Essay on the coins of Cunobeline,” &c. by Samuel Pegge A. M. in which work thisty nine of those coins are engrared.