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grew into general use at an early period of the present mode, and frequently occupied nearly the whole width of the nave, sometimes commencing near the level of the floor, and rising almost as high as the vaulting. It will be evident that a glare of light, objectionable to the utility of the edifice, would have proceeded from such spacious windows, and that their disproportionate size would have been liable to a strong objection, if a sister art had not been at hand to aid the architect in the production of new beauties. In these windows we behold, disposed with lavish munificence, the attractive and appropriate splendour of painted glass, conducive to the intended object of the structure by illustrating passages of sacred history, revealing tales of saints and martyrs, and perpetuating, in the rude portraiture of the times, the effigies of kings, prelates, and founders. The fascinating influence of these storied windows, even in intellectual ages, when the sanctity once attached to the fabulous parts of their narration is forgotten, or remembered only with a smile, is ackuowledged by every spectator of taste and feeling.

The adoption of eastern windows appears to have first occurred in the 13th century, and led to an alteration in the form of that part of the church; but the practice of constructing windows of large dimensions, both in the more sacred part and at the western extremity, obtained so much estimation in the early part of the tra now under notice, that we find them frequently introduced as alterations of ancient structures, which were otherwise allowed to remain nearly in their original state.

The numerous but not redundant Ornaments of this architectural class, although in general disposed with much felicity, were, perhaps, not designed in so elegant a taste as those of the preceding era. The capitals of the clustered columns were often richly foliated, and the arches of windows “ were invariably adorneil with one or more cusps on each side of the head; so as to form trefoils, cinquefoils, &c.”* Where pediments were


• Ecclesiastir , Architecture of the Middle ages, p. 104.

raised over arches they were uniformly purfled, or adorned with those representations of foliage termed crockets. Tie arches, thus surinounted with architectural decoration, were also accom. panied by pinnacles, constantly porfled, and crowned with a finial, or flower. Many new thouldings occur in this order; and rows of small ornamental arches are frequently seen. The niches, which remained plain, or subject to little ornament, in the previous mode, were now richly embellished; and, together with tabernacles (or niches of a more elaborate display) were constructed with an unsparing hand, and filled with statues, in many instances executed with considerable spirit. The sculpture of this style was sometimes meretriciously enriched with painting and gilding; and similar efforts towards the production of a superb effect occurred in other ornamental parts of edifices.

Many of the above particulars apply to the exterior, as well as to the internal parts of a structure. In regard to the former division of the building, it may be further observed that the arches of doorways were usually much enriched with crockets and other decorations. The buttresses were often ornamented with tracery-work and statuary, and terminated in pinnacles, decorated with crockets and a finial, as already described. Spires grew into frequent use in the early years of this era. Well calculated for popular admiration, from the subject of wonder connected with their aspiring height, their introduction was bailed with enthusiastic applause. -The retired village church, en wrapped in woodland, or situated amongst soft rural scenery, acquired a pleasing and consonant addition in the light unassuming proportions of this new feature: the sacred structure of the city, or great town, was, perhaps, more suitably adorned by the less elevated but commanding tower.





The rise of every architectural style is so entirely progressive, that, although the date of its perfection may usually be ascertained with sufficient certainty, it is often difficult to distin. guish the exact years of its commencement. Thus, the architecture of the early part of this reign has a great similitude to that which obtained in the time of Henry the Third. It is, however, believed that the narrow lancet-shaped window without mullions, and its correspondent architectural lineaments, were rarely used after the year 1300. The prevailing windows, in the mature and in the latter years of this king, and thronghout the whole reign of Edward the Second, were more expanded, but of less elegant proportions, than those constructed in the time of the third Edward—the Augustan age of pointed architecture,

The crosses erected by Edward the First, to the memory of Eleanor, his beloved consort, who died in 1290, display the extreme richness of the tracery and tabernacle work which were, about this time, added to the embellishments of church architecture* And these splendid examples, perhaps, much facilitated the universal adoption of such ornamental particulars.

Noticed in the Beauties. Several parts of Exeter Cathedral. The transepts were formed in the early

{ Devonshire, P. 61-72. part of this reign. The choir (begun in 1138,) was finished in 1309..........)

• Three only of the numerous crosses of memorial crected hy King Ed. ward, upon this occasion, are now remaining. These are situated at Ged. dington, Northamptonshire; at Northampton, or rather in the vicinity of that town; and at Walıhain, Herts. An engraved view of each is contained in the Beautics of England.

Noticed in the Beautics. St. Ethelbert's Gatehouse, in the pre-)

cinct of Norwich Cathedral, erected about 1275. The cloister of the same cathedral also presents a curious ex. ample of the architecture of this reign. “ The groinings, and even the details of the columns and of the rib mould- į Norfolk, P. 150, 151, and

158. ings, throughout the whole four sides of the quadrangle," are in the style of Edward the First. The eastern part of the cloister, “ having trefoil openings within triangles," is of the

same character. * ...........................) The Lady chapel of Litchfield Gathe-> Staffordshire, P. 792 and

dral..................... ................ 799. The naye of York Minster, begun in)

the year 1290, and completed in the next reign, according to the original į Yorkshire, P. 213-215. design. A fine and satisfactory specimen.....

Reign of EDWARD THE SECOND, FROM 1307 to 1327.

The style of Ecclesiastical Architecture throughout this reigu was the same, in its leading features, as in the latter years of King Edward the First. It would, therefore, be superfluous to enumerate specimens which afford only a continuatiou of a mode already explained and illustrated.


In closing an attentive review of the architecture of this bright era in our national annals, it is observed by Mr. Carter “ that the


• A judicious account of the cloister to this cathedral church, with en. graved views, is given in the Arcbitectural Antiquities of Great Britain, Vol. III.

art was then in its highest degree of perfection; the plans and elevations were on the grandest scale; the proportions just; the decorations ample and majestic; and the enrichments splendid and beautiful beyond all former precedent."* The same writer likewise notices some leading characteristics of this fine style, in words to the following effect :-The proportions of doorways and windows are rendered more consonant to geometrical rule. The mullions and tracery of the windows “run out in the most delightful and elegant manner. The buttresses become one of the principal features, from their infinity of parts and high einbellishment. The parapets, or breast works, on the walls, are changed into battlements with perforated compartments. The clusters of columns to all situations are masoned in one solid mass in their several courses, without bands; the shafts rising from base to capital in a clear and uninterrupted line.” The groins present tracery, compartments, &c. " and it should appear that the great aim of the architects, at this period, was to embellish the faces and lines of their structures in the most brilliant and luxurious manner,” as many particulars in the interiors were gilded and painted in various colours.

Noticed in the Beauties.
The Octagon and Lantern of Ely Cathe.)

dral, completed in 1342. The St.
Mary chapel of the same building, } Camprid

į Cambridgeshire, P. 163

165, with a print. Dow used as a parochial church, erect

ed between the years 1321 and 1349.) Choir of Carlisle Cathedral.................Cumberland, P. 85. Part of the South Transept, parts of the

Gloucestershire, P. 539 North Tran ept, choir and cloisters, į

547. Gloucester Cathedral............ Parts of the nave, side aisle, &c. of St.

Hertfordshire, P. 69–81. Alban's Abbey Churchet .......

: Parts





• Ancient Architecture of England, Part I[d, p. 14. + Engraved as specimens of this reign, in Carter's Ancient Architecture of Ingland.

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