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methodised into a system, and can be denominated a style. And this fact is noticed by Mr. Bentham, in a subsequent page. *
The exact date at which arches of a poiuted construction were first used, is a subject unsettled by antiquarian discussion, and is of little importance in the present section of our work. In regard to their character and disposal, where intermingled with the predominating circular style, I profit by the words of Mr. Millers :Before the end of the period usually ascribed to the Anglo Norman mode, and even early in it, “ some instances are found of pointed arches-they are sparingly introduced-one or more tiers of them appear at the top of a building, all the lower ones being round-sometimes they are alternate-sometimes one is inserted, capriciously as it were, among several round-they are, for the most part, obtusely, but, in some instances, even sharply pointed -but are always wide-standing on heavy columus, or garnished with mouldings, or both. - There was a third sort of arch, sometimes, but very rarely, occurring. It is called the horse-shoe arch, and is an arc of a circle somewhat greater than the semicircle."'+
To which it may be added, that these pointed arches, origi. pally interspersed in buildings of the circular style, are usually ornamented with the zig-zag, or other mouldings characteristic of the architectural fashion which preceded the English.
Instances of this jutermixture of dissimilar arches may be noticed in the under-named buildings, among many others; church of St. Cross, near Winchester, erected about 1130; Temple Church, London, 1172; Malmsbury Abbey Church, Wiltshire ; Landaf Cathedral ; and Lanthoni Abbey, Monmouthshire. It may be observed, that the same mixture of arches occurs in the church of Bar freston, Kent, which Mr. King, and several other writers, have attributed to the Saxon era. . .
• Vide, History of the Cathedral church of Ely, p. 37. + Description of the Cathedral church of Ely, &c. by George Millers, M. A. p. 22.—The ovale fat arch was sometimes used by the Anglo-Normans, as in the instance of the western entrance to the church of Harrow-on-the Hill, Middlesex, built by Archbishop Lanfranç.
During this struggle between the two forms, it would appear that the architects of buildings then erecting, frequently displayed incongruous arches, for the parpose of exhibiting their comparative merits to public notice. The fival issue of the con. test will shortly be stated, together with the magnificent effect on ecclesiastical archilecture, of the triumph obtained by scientific lightness over rude solidity.
In the absence of any decisive criteria for appropriating variations in Anglo-Norman architecture to determinate ages, tho object of the investigator may be, in a great measure, advanced, by an enumeration of some principal structures which exhibit characteristics of this style. To facilitate enquiry, the date of erection will be affixed, where attainable, to each building cited as a conspicuous example.
Such a catalogue of these works (often stupendous, and almost uniformly evincing a grandeur of views) must be properly introduced by an observation respecting the station in life of the architects to whom they are chiefly ascribed. The reader will recollect, to the honour of a race of ecclesiastics, often named with exceptless, overwhelming, obloquy by the inconsiderate, that the great architects of the Anglo-Norman ages are to be found in the lists of dignified clergy. Several of the most distinguished may be thus noticed, from a statement made by Mr. Dallaway:
“ We have the following enumeration of Norman bishops, who were either architects themselves, or under whose auspices are chitecture Aourished. Gundulph of Rochester (1077-1107.) Mauritius of London (1086.1108) built old St. Paul's cathedral. Roger of Salisbury (1107-1140,) the Cathedral at Old Sarum. Ernulf of Rochester (1115-1125) completed bishop Gundulph's work there. They were both monks of Bec, in Normandy. Alexander of Lincoln (1123-1147) rebuilt his Cathedral. Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester (1129-1169,) a most celebrated
architect, built the conventual churches of St. Cross and Rumsey, in Hampshire; and, lastly, Roger, archbishop of York (1154-1181,) where none of his work remains. By these architects the Norman manner was progressively brought to perfection in England; and it will be easily supposed, that the im. provements made by any of them were adopted in succession."*
To the above list must be added the names of Lanfranc, conspicuous for his works at Canterbury; Thomas, equally celebrated at York; Walkelin, at Winchester; Remigius, at Linçoln; William, at Durham; Robert, at Hereford; Herbert, at Norwich; and St. Anselni, at Chester.
The Cathedral churches of England, although much altered by the innovations (munificent, and often gatifying) of succeeding ages, still exbibit the most satisfactory specimens of the style at present under consideration. The sublimity of AngloNorman architecture was, indeed, displayed in these edifices to its utmost height; and it impresses reverence, even in mutilation, and now that the general effect for which the designer laboured, is no more
Mr. Bentham observes, that “there is, perhaps, hardly any one of our Cathedral churches, of the early Norman style (marked by round arches and large pillars) remaining entire, though they were all originally so built; but specimens of it may still be seen in most of them. The greatest parts of the cathedrals of Dure ham; Carlisle; Chester; Peterborough; Norwich ; Rochester; Chichester; Oxford; Worcester; Wells; and Hereford; the tower and transept of Winchester; the nave of Gloucester; the naye and transept of Ely; the iwo towers of Exeter; some remains in the middle of the west front of Lincoln, with the lower parts of the two towers there; in Canterbury, great part of the choir, formerly called Conrade's choir (more ornamented than usual); the two towers, called St. Gregory's and St. Anselm's, and the north-west tower, of the same church.-York and Lich
• Dallaway's English Architecture, p. 20.
field have had all their parts so entirely rebuilt, at separate times, since the disuse of round arches, that little, or nothing, of the old Norman work appears in them at this day. The present Cathedral church of Salisbury is the only one that never had any mixture of this early Norman style in its composition.”*
The above extract is presented, as it forms a useful compendium of information concerning the cathedrals in which vestiges of Anglo-Norman architecture are most conspicuous. In the subjoined Table of Examples, the Anglo-Norman parts of cathedral buildings are stated soinewhat more explicitly than was necessary to the design of Mr. Bentham's work, together with the probable dates of erection, as afforded by the most acceptable authorities.
My enumeration of Cathedrals exhibiting specimens of this style, is followed by that of some Parochial churches (several of which were formerly conventual,) and of the principal Ruins of Monastic structures which have so far survived the ravages of interest and ignorance, as to retain a melancholy memorial of their founders, in traces of the architectural style which pre. vailed when those generous persons flourished in rude but vene. rable pomp, and expended what hospitality could spare, in adorning the land with tributes of fanciful piety.
In regard to that part of the annexed list which relates to Parochial churches, it will be obvious that we have, very rarely, an opportunity of ascertaining the precise date of erection, on written testimony. The periods of foundation, repair, and addi. tion, in such buildings as were connected with monastic institutions, were frequently chronicled by inmates of the establishment; but the structure raised by the manorial lord had no devoted pen to record its architectural history. The date of erection is, therefore, usually presumptive; and calculations concerning it proceed froin au analogy of style with superior edifices, whose origin is authenticated. A ray of information, however,
• Hist. of Ely Cathedral, p.3
is sometimes derived from commemorative inscriptions, attached to the buildings. Many of these, recording the foundation and consecration, are collected in Pegge's “Sylloge of Remaining Inscriptions," article “ second series, beginning at the Norman Conquest.”
The reader will perceive that a few instances only are adduced. It will not be supposed that this Table of Enumeration is intend. ed to present a view of the whole Anglo-Norman ecclesiastical antiquities remaining in England. A selection has been made of such specimens as are most amply noticed in the “Beauties.” Frequently, parts only of the buildings cited, contain. AngloNorman vestiges; but those instances in which circular doorways alone remain, are not mentioned. These are numerous in every district; and some remarks have already been submitted, concerning the probable cause of their | 92.vation.* The examples of Parochial churches are arranged in counties, enumerated alphabetically, in attention to the mode observed in describing the “ Beauties of England and Wales.”
Several Normau churches may, unquestionably, be found amongst those attributed by some writers to the Anglo-Saxons, and which are mentioned as buildings thus conjecturally ascribed, in a previous section. Where there appear strong reasons for appropriating such structures to the era under notice, those churches are again cited. This, however, has been done only upon grounds which appeared to be secure. Thus, the church of Iffley, in Oxfordshire, is said by Mr. Wartont to have been built by a bishop of Lincoln, in the 12th century; but, as his authority for such an assertion cannot be discovered, I have not adduced that building as a positive example of Anglo-Norman architecture.- St. Peter's in the East, one of the most curious ancient ornaments of Oxford (a city so rich in subjects of antiquarian investigation,) is supposed, by a recent writer in a work
• Vide Inte, p. 269-270, note.