« НазадПродовжити »
lands on river-sides, a people who are stream-borderers. It is obvious, that a name, if derived from allusions to locality, would be bestowed on a tribe from its primary circumstances of inhabitation; and it is probable, that the Dobuni first took posses. sion of the lowlands of these districts, and consequently were dwellers in the vicinity of such great streams as formed distinguishing features in the character of surrounding country. Co. rinium, Cirencester in Gloucestershire, was their capital.
The Cassii" appear to have occupied the tract of country now divided into the connties of Hertford, Bedford, Buckingham, Middlesex, and Essex; having their principal town at Verolamium, (St. Alban's.).
To the north of the Thames dwelt the people known by the general name of Iceni,t divided into two tribes, termed the Iceni magni, or Cenomanni; and the Iceni Coritani.
The territory of the Iceni Magni is said, in a note on Richard of Cirencester, “ to have stretched from the Stour to the north of the Nen and the Ouse, possibly to the Welland; and, on the west, to the boundaries of the Carnabii and Dobuni.” A precise definition of the extent of territory possessed by this, or any other of the British tribes, would appear to be of little importance, unless connected with some historical incident, or illustrative of a peculiarity in custom or manner, as displayed in tangible vestiges. According to the opinions usually received, the Iceni Magni are believed to have been the ancient inhabitants of the present counties of Huntingdon, Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk, and part of Northamptonshire. They had for their capital, Taesborough, in
chard of Cirencester, that “they were bounded on the west by the Severn, on the south by the Thames, on the east by the Charwell, and on the north by the Carnabii.” Richard of Ciren. Edit. 1809, p. 16.
• See the Cassii noticed in the Beauties for Hertfordshire, p. 5; for Bed. fordshire, p. 1; and for Buckinghamshire, p. 276.
For statements of many particulars relating to the Iceni, sce Beauties for Huntingdonshire, p. 325-326; for Cambridgeshire, p. 3–7; and for Norfolk, p. 1-3.
Norfolk, which the Romans removed afterwards to Castor, near Norwich.
The Iceni CORITANI,* or, as they are often terined the Cor. ICENI, appear chiefly to have inhabited the counties of Lincoln, Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, and Rutland, with the remaining part of Northamptonshire. Their chief city was Rage, or Rata (Leicester).
The original Celtic population of the district now termed Wales, will be mentioned in a future page; and I, therefore, proceed towards the north, in which direction, to the westward of the Cor. itani, were seated the CARNABII, or CORNAVII,+ whose territories are believed to have extended over a great part of the following counties :—Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire, Shropshire, and Cheshire. (The remainder of the two former of these counties appears to have been possessed by a tribe which is termed Huiccii, by Bede, but is called Jugantes, by Tacitus, and whose name is now commonly written Wiccii.) The metropolis of the Carnabii was Uriconium (Wroxeter.)
To the north of the Carnabii and the Coritani, were situated the BRIGANTES, who constituted the most numerous and powerful of the British nations, at the time of the Roman invasion. Their dominions extended over the present counties of Durham, York, Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Lancaster. But parts of the western border of this great territory were occupied by two tribes, of distinct appellations, although subject to the government
• The Coritani are noticed in the Beauties for Rutlandshire, p. 4; for Leicestershire, p. 313 ; for Nottinghamshire, p. 2; and for Derbyshire, p. 291.
* For notices of the Carnabii, or Cornavii, see Beauties for Warwickshire, p. 2-3; for Worcestershire, p. 3–5; for Staffordshire, p. 717--719; and for Cheshire, p. 183—184.
# For notices of the tribe termed Brigantes, see Beauties for Durham, p. 5–6; for Yorkshire, p. 1–8; and 668—669; for Westmoreland, p. 1; for Cumberland, p. 3–5; and for Lancashire, p. 5—7. The Sistuntii and the Volontii are noticed in the same pages, with an exception of those for Yorban Shire.
of the Brigantes. These were entitled the VOLUNTII and Sis. TUNTI.* The interest created by their names, is, however, very slight, as the most important events connected with their story must be sought in the annals of the Brigantes. This latter potent and predominating tribe owned numerous towns, the principal of which
was Isurium (Aldborough, near Boroughbridge.) - In addition to the above particulars respecting Brigantia, it must be observed, that a people termed the Parisii are mentioned, both by Richard and Ptolemy, as living in that district which is now termed the East Riding of York. But it is conjectured by Baxter, Whitaker, and other modern writers, that the Parisii did not constitute a separate tribe, and were merely the Cangi, or herdsmen of the Brigantes. It is certain, that they were subordinate to that powerful nation; and if they had not been separately noticed by early geographers, the historian would be quite indifferent as to their identity and presumed characteristics. Their only town, according to Ptolemy, was called Petuaria (Brough on the Humber) although a second, termed Portus Felix, is noticed by Richard of Cirencester, which, probably, was situated near the mouth of that river.
The most northeru tribes of the country now denominated England were the OTTADINIf and the Gadeni, who held such parts of the counties of Northuinberland and Cumberland as are north of the Tyne; and the domains of the former are supposed to have extended into Scotland, as far as the extremity of Lothian; thus comprising a long and fine extent of sea-coast. Ptolemy, to C2
• The geographical positions of these tribes are marked in the annexed map; and the following observations concerning their exact limits, together with those of the Brigantes, are presented in the potes on Richard of Cirencester, p. 51. The territory of the Brigantes proper, “ stretched from the bounds of the Parisii, northward to the Tine; and from the Humber and Don to the mountains of Lancashire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland. To the. Volantii belonged the western part of Lancashire; and to the Sistuntii, the west of Westmoreland and Cumberland, as far as the Wall.”
+ The tribe termed Ottadini, is noticed in the Beauties for Northumber: land, p. 1-2.