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siderable splendour were really erected by the Romans in this island. At Bath [ Aquæ Sulis) have been discovered, and are there preserved with due care, many fragments of decorated stone buildings, consisting of parts of columns, pediments, cornices, friezes, &c. The most considerable portions of these are supposed to have belonged to two temples, of much architectural elegance; one being of the Corinthian order.* Few disputants will contend for the probability of such structures being confined to one Roman station, however great its importance.
The discoveries made at Woodchester prove that the Romans used columns, and various sculptured ornaments, even in their provincial domestic architecture. The remains of building there developed, would appear to proclaim, decisively, the substantial and superb character of the Roino-British villa of a superior class. Accident has, likewise, disclosed the fragments of other villse, though of a less inportant description ; and we are justified in believing, with the judicious illustrator of the antiquities at Woodchester, that the plans of many more might yet be traced, although their superstructures are defaced in Britain, beyoud the example of any other province of the Roman empire.f
TRACES OF DOMESTIC STRUCTURES, INCLUDING TesselLATED PAVEMENTS. It will be perceived, from the above remarks, that few vestiges of the domestic buildings of the Romans, evincing an attractive degree of splendour, are recorded to have been discovered on the site of their principal cities and towns in Britain. The remains hitherto known to have been disclosed, are, indeed, chiefly confined to mutilated hypocausts and tessellated pave
• See an account of these interesting vestiges, in a publication by Mr. S. Lysons, intituled " Remains of (wo Temples, and other Roman Antiquities, discovered at Bath;" also in Warner's “ History of Bath,” &c. In the for. mer work, are restored elevations of those parts of the buildings to which the fragments relate.
+ See many remarks on the subject of Ronjan domestic architecture, in Mr. Lisons's account of Roman Antiquities at Woodchester, &c.
ments. The encroachments of subsequent buildings, have precluded all hope of ascertaiving the extent and character of even one domus, or town-dwelling, throughoul the whole of the cities formerly occupied by the Romans; and the principal traces of their domestic structures are discovered in places at a coosiderable distance from their stations.
In sequestered situations in the sheltered valley, or on the well-wooded brow of upland—are often found vestigia of domestic buildings, uuquestionably formed and inhabited by that polished people. The Romans, from the time of Lacullus, down to the days of their descendants now living, have evinced a partiality for occasional abodes, of a retired and rural character, Such a taste appears to have been conspicuous in the Roman officers who commanded in Britain; and the remains of many of their villæ have been discovered, in the recent ages favourable to antiquarian record.
Several modern writers have used much labour to prove that the country seats of the Romans, in Britain), were of a character far from agreeing with our prevalent ideas, respecting the habitual magnificence of that people.* And it would appear probable that many of the rural dwellings, constructed only for the purpose of occasional retirement, in a remote province of the empire, might not be raised with laborious care, or forined of the most durable materials. Mr. King argues that these buildings were only light fabrics of wood, as the tessellated pave. ments so frequently found entire amongst their ruins, must, in. evitably, have been destroyed by the fall and havoc of any weighty substance, when the superstructure was violently razed
• Foremost amongst such writers is Mr. King, who petulantly observes " That is most instances, a Roman Quæstor, or Tribune, sitting in his loga, n his movable sella, in a room paved with dull, dark, and. at best, ill-looking mosaic work, did not, after all, appear with much more real splendour, as to any advantages from the refinements of civilized life, than an old Scotch Laird, in the Highands, sitting in his pluid, on a joint-stool, or on a chair of not much bet. ter construction, in the corner of his rough, rude, castle-tower!" Munimenta Antiqua, Vol. II. p. 16+.
to the ground. Without entering into speculative calculations concerning the general probability of such an effect, it may be observed that some of the Roman villæ in Britain were certainly formed in a more substantial manner. At Woodchester, in Glou. cestershire, (slightly noticed in a previous page) have been revealed, to the height of three and four feet from the foundation, the fragınents of massy walls, constructed of squared stones. Amongst the interesting ruins of the same building, were found the remains of stone columns, and of statues which had enriched the principal apartments.* Similar instances of the discovery of foundations of solid wall, on the site of a Roman villa, arę noticed in many pages of the Beauties of England.
From an examination of the several accounts of the traces of Roman villæ discovered in this island, it would appear to be likely that such buildings were not more than one story bigh. The rooms, although often large, were seldom of such proportions as are deemed elegant by the moderns; but they were, in many instances, ornamented with considerable care, the walls of the Jong passages and chief rooms being covered with stucco, and painted in fresco.—Marks of destruction by fire have been frequently ascertained in these domestic ruios.
It is certain that the Romans varied the form of their habilations, in attention to the climate and situation in which they resided; but the view of a Romo- British villa may be si'pposed to convey a correct idea of the general character of their domestic arravgement, in this island.+ Such a building we find to con
sist sist of spacious halls, extensive porticos, and open courts, running through the centre of the structure, with suites of rooms branching out on either side. The dimensions of the site occupied by a single distinguished villa were very great, and such as render easy of comprehension the correctness of Seneca, when he eb. serves that the villa of an elevated Roman had the appearance of a camp, rather thau of a country seat.
• An account of the antiquities discovered at Woodchester is presented in the “Beauties” for Gloucester, p. 572, et seq. The remains of other Roman villas, of considerable interest, are noticed in the following volumes of the “ Beauties ;" Lincolnshire, p. 658–9; Northamptonshire, p. 6; ibid. p. 207 ; Nottinghamshire, p. 396—8; North Wales, p. 475; South Wales, p. 9-11.
* The domus and villa, or town and country house, although unquestionably the one was fitted up with more elegance than tlıc other, contained the same
As vestiges of these villæ (memorials of the domestic habits of those who once ruled all Europe !) are noticed in many parts of the Beauties of England, it may not be undesirable to evumerate the principal apartments into which the residence of a Roman of the upper class was divided, and the uses to whieh they were applied.
The chief rooms were denominated Triclinia ; Cænationes; Eci; Cubicula ; Balnearea ; Exedra; and Pinacotheca. The halls, porticos, and courts, were distinguished by the names of Vestibula ; Atria; Peristylia ; Tablina ; Cavædia, or Cava edium ; Porticus; and Cryptoporticus.
The Triclinium, or triclinia, was the dining-room.
The Cænatio appears to have been a smaller eating, or supper. room.
The Eci were large saloons, often adorned with columns, and used for the purposes of dignified entertainments.
The Cubicula were bedchambers.
The baths (balnearea] of the Romans, were constructed with nuch care; and, connected with these luxurious appendages of their villæ, may be noticed the Apodyterium, which was a kind of dressing-room ; and the Laconicum, or as it was sometimes called Assa, or Calida sudatio, which was intended entirely for the purpose of sweating. Both these apartments adjoined the Tepi. darium, or warm bath, N4
rooms, but differently distributed. In the town house the atrium was placed next to the gate of entrance ; in the country house the peristylium, and next to it the atrium, surrounded by a paved portico. Newton's Vitruv. Vol. I. Book VI. Chap. VIII. p. 141.
The Eredra were large rooms, which are supposed to have been surrounded with seats, and used for conversational purposes.
The Pinacothecu were picture-rooms; and Vitruvius directs them to be made of an ample magnitude.
The halls, courts, and porticos, formed distinguished portions of the Roman villa. After passing the vestibule, the visitor entered the Peristylium, which was a large court, or area, surrounded by a colonnade. Beyond this division of the structure was the Atrium, or hall; which was surrounded by a paved por. tico. The Tablinum is thought to have been a place appropriated to the preservation of the family records.* The Cavædia appear to have been sometimes large halls, and sometimes opeu courts, in the interior parts of the house, communicating with several suites of rooms, and in many respects resembling the atria.+ The Porticus is well known to have been an open parade, ornamented with pillars, and used for the exercise of walking. The Crypto-porticus was an enclosed gallery, in which the Roinans walked, and took other exercise, during inclement seasons. · The houses of the Romans, from the time of Nero, were chiefly warmed by Hypocausts, or subterraneous fiues, with fun. nels through the walls. It is observed by Mr. King, that “these hypocausts, with their flues, for the conveyance of heat, were of two kinds ; sometimes they were constructed of small pillars, either square or round, a little more than two feet high, and placed sometimes about one foot asunder, and sometimes nearer, supporting the tiles or stones, on which was laid the cement for forming the tessellated floor of the apartment;- and sometines they were construct:d of fat stones, or of tiles, laid one upon another, each projecting a little further than that under it, and by that ineaus forming something like an arch, so as to have the space of each flue between them much narrower at the top than at
• Newton's Vitruvius, p. 136.