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INDEX.

Adams, John, the paper money of the
American Revolution, 16.

Agricultural wages paid largely in
kind, 20-4; agricultural laborers in
England crippled early by rheuma-
tism, 38; agricultural truck not for-
bidden in England, 327.

Agriculture, great irregularity of em-
ployment in, 27, 28, 32, 33 ; law of
"Diminishing Returns" in, chap. v.;
difficulty of applying co-operation to,
280, 281.

Air, purity of the, affecting the effi-
ciency of labor, 60-4.

Alison, Sir Archibald, History of
Europe, 54, 75ft., 118ft., 133ft.,
180ft.T 268ft., 317, 318, 355, 397ft.;
(Report on the Payment of Wages
Bill, 1854), testimony respecting
truck, 331-333.

Allotment system, the, 25.

Ames, Dr., Sex in Industry, 373.

Annuities, mistake of the British
Government respecting sale of, 400,
401.

Applegarth, William, objects and
methods of the Amalgamated Soci-
ety of Carpenters, 399.

Apprentices, statute of (England),
306, 307.

Apprenticeship made the condition of
entrance to many trades by union
regulations, 403-5.

Arbitration, 394.

Argyle, Duke of, famine in India,
118ft.; necessity for restrictions
upon labor, 357.

Arithmetical increase of subsistence,
102.

Ashworth, Mr., comparative cost of
clothing from cotton, wool, and flax,
122ft.
Austria, co-operation in, 288; restric-
tions upon industry, 309, 310;
marriage 'statistics, 356; factory
legislation, 360; strikes, 395.

Avarice, in masters and employers,
opposes true self-interest, 59,
164.

Babbage, Charles, Economy of Man-
ufactures, 98, 257, 279ti., 280ft.,
282rc.

Bagehot, Walter, varying efficiency of
labor, 47; Lombard Street, 230.

Baines, Mr., improvidence of the
cottage population of Leeds,
350w.

Baker, R. Smith, false economy of
the labor of married women in fac-
tories, 382 ft.

Bastiat, Fred'k., Harmonies ofPolit-
cal Economy, 159n. ,

Batbie, M., Nouveau ConrsdeVEcon-
omic, 44ft., 49^., 54, 65.

Baxter, R. Dudley. National Income,
30ft., 31, 32, 38, 375ft.; Local Taxa-
tion, 323.

Bazley, Sir Thomas, accidents in
mining in England, 36ft.

Beaulieu, M., Les Populations Ouv-
rieres, 78.

Belgium, statistics of height and
weight, 50, 51; intemperance in,
78ft.; ratio of bread-winners to de-
pendents, 126^.; proportion of for-
eigners in the population, 184 ; co-op-
eration in, 287; marriage statistics
of, 356; no factory legislation in,
361; laws against strikes and com-
binations in, 395.

Beverley, Mr., marriages early in India,
356ft.

Biggs, Wm., testimony respecting
frame rents, 334.

Birth-rate, within different occupa-
tions, 191; effect of injudicious poor
laws upon, 322, 323.

''Black Death," the, industrial conse-
quences of, 304. ,

Blanqui, M., Cours oVEoonomie In*
dustrielle, 59ft. 274ft.

Board, to agricultural laborers, 20, 21.

Bodio, Louis, (Jassedi Hisparmio, 350.

Bonar, Mr., relation of employers and
laborers in Switzerland, 260%.

Boot and shoe manufacture, irregu-
larity of employment in, 80; intro-
duction of machinery into, 189.

Brabazon, Lord, payment of agricul-
tural wages in France, 20%.; food
of the laboring population, 56%., 78;
town and country rents, 118n.;
wages of women and men in agricul-
ture, 376?/., 380%.

Brassey, Thomas, Work and Wages,
efficiency of labor among various
nationalities, 45, 46, 72; diet of
East Indians, 118%.; payment of
wages to French laborers, 350%.;
women in railway construction,
374%.; Address at Halifax, 277-278.

Bread winners, ratio to dependents,
126%., 191.

Brewster, Messrs., co-operative enter-
prise, 283%.

Briggs, Messrs., co-operative enter-
prise, 282.

Brickmaking, irregularity of employ-
ment in, 28; employment of women
and children in, 52, 202.

Brittany, low stature of peasantry of,
50; language of, 175%.

Britton, J. W.,co-operative enterprise,
283%.

Cairnes, J. E., Essays in Political
Economy, effects of the gold dis-
coveries on prices, 14%.; the doc-
trine of laisbez faire, 162%, 168, 173;
insufficiency of the employers' sense
of self-interest, 164; The Slave Pow-
er, inefficiency of slave labor, 72;
The Logical Method of Political
Economy, (Ed. 1875) the law of dim-
inishing returns in agriculture, 94%.
100%; ratio between population and
subsistence, 119; the office of econo-
mic definition, 218; Some Leading
Principles of Political Economy,
etc., 187%., 184; theory of "non-
competing groups," 195-7; profits
the reward of abstinence, 231;
profits at or near the minimum,
233; excessive profits restored to
wages, 237, 238, 253; co-operation,
264-265; are strikes s-uccessf ul?
298%.; excessive friction of retail
trade, 314, 315.

Caird, James, dwellings in Scotland,
61; Prairie Farming, 91%.;

Canada, efficiency of labor in, 45.

Cantillon, M., ratio of breadwinners
to dependents, 126%.

Capital, often supplied by the persons
who perform labor in production,
8; does not furnish the measure of

18*

wages,; 130, 131; yet wages are
largely advanced out of capital;
does capital include land? 224-5;
are the returns of capital at the
minimum or not? £33, 237; does it
make any difference to the wages
class whether the returns of capital
are at the minimum or not ? 237-41.

Capitalist class, the, chap. xiii.; not
coincident with employing class,
229, 244, 245; dependent equally
with the laboring class, on the em-
ploying class, 290, 291.

Carey, H. C, Essay on Wages, 141,
382%.

Carpentering trade, irregularity of
employment in, 28, 32.

Carpenters, the Amalgamated Socie-
ty of, 399.

Catholic countries, holidays in, 29;
priesthood, influence in favor of
early marriages, 356%.

Census, United States, 1870, 66, 180,
375; Ireland, 1851, 111; Scotland,
1871, 175%., 191, 377.

Chadwick, Edwin, cost of rearing a
child, 38%.; employers prefer high-
priced labor, 41%.; effects of drill
upon laborers; 72; difficulty of re-
moving laborers, 185, 257; effects
of education upon the condition of
the laboring class, 353.

Chalmers, Thomas, Political Econo-
my, 322 /.

Chamberlain, E. M., Sovereigns of In-
dustry, 288%.

"Channel Islands," the, tenure of
land in, 208.

Charles II. (England), industrial legis-
lation of his reign, 308.

Chateaubriand, M., wages a later form
of slavery, 295.

Cherbuliez, A. E., Precis de la Science
Economique, 131.

Cheerfulness in labor, 72-77.

Chevalier, M., Lectures, 99, 105;?, 156,
170; Travels in the United States,
180%.

Children, irregularity of their employ-
ment in agriculture, 33; employed
on work unsuited to their strength,
52,53, 167, 168, 201-3; legislation
respecting the employment of, 356-
62.

China, food habits of the people, 118;
immobility of the population, 176.

China scourers, excessive mortality
among, 37.

Cider truck, 23, 327.

Cleanliness of person, affecting efficien-
cy of labor, 60, 61.

Clerical profession, duration of life in,
37.

Clifford, Frederick, The Agricultural
Lock-out 0/1874, 47%., 117, 118%. .

Clipperton, Consul, speech differences
among population of France, l?5/£.

Clothing, its importance to the effi-
ciency of the laborer, 58; relative
expenditure of different classes for,
117//.; is cheap clothing desirable?
122; comparative cost of clothing
from cotton, wool, and flax, I22n.

Coinage, changes in, affecting nominal
wages, 13

Cobden, R., English peasantry di-
vorced from the soil, 20Sn.

Colwell, Stephen, Ways and Means of
Payment^ VSn.

Competition, when perfect, secures an
absolutely right distribution of
wealth, 157; imperfect or unequal
competition may depress and de-
grade the laboring class, 1(55, 166,
2:30, 221,239-41, 308«, 385, 386 ; Prof.
Cairnes' theory of "Non-competing
Groups," 195, 202, 221, 222; compe-
tition opposed by the force of cus-
tom, 311.

Communal property in Switzerland,
351.

Consumption of wealth defined, 4.

Consumptive co-operation, 283-8.

Co-operation, defined, 247; erroneous
characterization of, by Prof. Cairnes,
262-5; its real object is to get rid of
the employing class, 265-8 ; antici-
pated advantages of, 268-72; its lim-
ited success, 272-75; its difficulties,
275-80; applied to agriculture, 281;
partial co-operation, 283-3; consump-
tive co-operation subject to fewer
difficulties, 283-4; anticipated ad-
vantages of, 2S4-6; statistics of,
287-8.

Continuity of employment, the em-
ployer's interest in, 300-2

Continuity of production, the employ-
er's interest in, 298-9.

Corn Laws, repeal of, effect on English
agriculture, 258.

Corsica, annual migration into, from
France, 187??..

Cotter tenancy, 9, 212.

Cotton manufacture, irregularity of
employment in, 30.

Cotton goods, cost of, compared with
woollens, 122n.

Courcelle-Seneuil, M., Operations de
Banque, 252.

Co well, Mr., effect of English poor laws
on female chastity, 322.

Cow-land, concession of, 23; profits
estimated, 24.

Coxe,Wm., Travels, the bearing of the
Swiss peasantry, 260.

Cranworth, Lord, strikes always futile,
388.

Crowe, H. B. M. Consul - General,
strikes in Norway, 396.

Currency, fictitious, effects upon wage
labor, 310-3.

Custom, its office in protecting the
weaker classes against unequal com-
petition, 311.

Darwin, Charles, The Origin of Spe-
cies, 104.

Debts, small: shall they be protect-
ed by law? 350w.

Definitions in political economy, 218.

Degradation of labor, the, chap. iv.

Denmark, proportion of foreigners in
the population, 184; co-operation in,
287, 288; restrictions upon industry
removed, 309; savings-banks sta-
tistics, 350%.; strikes, 396; trade
clubs, 402.

Dependents, ratio to breadwinners,
126%. 191.

Devon, Lord, his commission on the
condition of Ireland, 370.

Diffusion theory of taxation, 160, 316-8.

1' Diminishing Returns" in agriculture,
law of, chap. v.: does not apply to
mechanical industry, 98; affecting
wages, 150.

Distribution of wealth defined, 4; il-
lustrated, 5, 6; in treating the ques-
tions of distribution we have to do
with industrial classes, not func-
tions, 7; the problem of distribution,
chap. x.; deemed by Chevalier less
important and difficult than the
problem of production, 156.

Distributed exchanged for undistri-
buted wealth, the effect on wages,
219-223.

Division of labor always a source of
mechanical advantage, 90, 95 ; up to a
certain point tends to increase agri-
cultural wages, 147-9.

Ducarre, M., Sala.ires et Rapports
entre Ouvriers et Patrons (1875),
87, 187%., 274, 309%., 341 %., 394%.

Dupin, M., his researches into French
industry, 47.

u Dusty Trades," mortality of, 36.

Dwellings, laborers', often unfit for
habitation, 61-4; effects of unsani-
tary and inadequate habitation on
the moral elements of industry, 86;
proportional expenditure of different
classes on lodging, 117.

Earnings, extra, in trades, 24, 25;

harvest, in agriculture, 2<6n.
Eden, Sir F. M., History of the Poor,

347rc.
Education, influence on efficiency ot

labor, 65-7; relative expenditure

of different classes, for, 117%.; loss

of wages involved in, 123.
Edward III., industrial legislation of

his reign, 304, 305, 307, 379.

Edward TV., law against truck, 326.

Edward VI., pauper legislation, 807,
320.

Egerton, H. B. M. Consul, inefficiency
of Russian labor, 44; irregularity of
factory attendance, 48; feebleness
of the industrial desires of the Rus-
sian peasantry, 127/z.; no factory
legislation in Russia, 862; strikes in
Russia, 396; "artels,1' 403.

Elizabeth, Queen, industrial legislation
of her reign, 306, 307, 320.

Emigration of artisans from Great Bri-
tain forbidden by law prior to 1824,
307.

Employers of labor sometimes working
at their trades, or personally super-
vising the laborers, 10; the sense of
their self-interest not always suffi-
cient, 59, 60, 164; profits their ob-
ject in production, 129, 130; em-
ployers a distinct industrial class,

237, 228; not necessarily capitalists,

238, 229; under imperfect competi-
tion employers are not the guardians
of the laborers' interests, 239, 240,
858; the employer the master of the
situation, 290, 291; incapable em-
ployers live at the expense of the
laboring class, 254-6; employers
stimulated by increased competition
on the side of the laboring class,
256-8; paid in some degree in honor
and social distinction, 259; said by
Adam Smith to be always in combi-
nation to lower wages, 393.

Employing class, the, chap. xiv.; to
be distinguished from the capitalist
class, 244, 245; a false employing
class, 247-50; characteristics of the
true employing class, 251, 252; this
class in Switzerland, 259, 260; it is
the object of co-operation to get rid
of the employing class, 262-8; has
either the employed or employing
class an economical advantage over
the other? chap. xvi.

Employed, the, none others belong to
the wages class, 206, 207; the dis-
tinction between the employed and
the non-employed the greatest struc-
tural fact of industrial society, 221.

Employment,, the question of, is the
true wages question, 269, 270, 290,
291; regularity of, affecting real
wages, 26-33; continuity -of, the em-
ployers' interest in, 300-2.

England, payment of agricultural
wages, 20; duration of laboring
power, 34, 35; efficiency of labor
compared with that of India, 42; of
various European countries, 43-6;
north and south o L England, relative
efficiency of labor of, 47; statistics
of height and weight, 50, 51; food

of laborers, 54; degradation of the
laboring population, how effected,
82-4; food habits of the people,
118, 120, 124/*.; ratio of breadwin-
ners to dependents, 126?i.; rise of
the wages-fund doctrine, 140; the
peasantry divorced from the soil,
208, 211^.; effect on agriculture of
the repeal of the corn laws, 258;
co-operation in England, 272, 273,
282, 28t3, 287; laws in restraint of la-
bor, 304-9; poor laws, 819-24; mar-
riage statistics,. 356, 381?i.; factory
laws, 359, ^60; rents influenced by
public opinion, 367; legislation
against strikes and combinations,
392, 398; friendly societies, 403.

Engel, Dr., relative expenditure of
families on food, clothing, etc., 116,
117.

Entrepreneur, the, (see Employing
Class).

Erie, Sir Win., the law of strikes,
893; report of his commission on
Trade Unions, 399, 406.

Exchange of Wealth defined, 4; illus-
trated, 5, 6.

Exchange of distributed for undis-
tributed wealth its effect on wages,
6, 2i9, 22 J.

Factory legislation in England op-
posed by political economists, 162;
its economical justification, 167,17S;
its history in E.irope, 356-62.

Faithfull, Miss, public opinion un-
friendly to female labor, 384.

Famine, restricting population, 111,
112; periodical in India, 118?i.; Irish
famine of 1846-7, 121.

Farmer, the American, 5, 9, 227.

Fashion, changes in, working import-
ant effects on industry, 178-179.

Fawcett, Henry, Political Economy
(McMillan, I860),the Allotment sys-
tem, 25?*.; food of the laborers* of
the West of England, 56; wages are
to be increased at the expense of
profits, 577i., 233, 234; equivalency
of subsistence and wages, Issji.;
differences in local wages in England,
187; transfer of labor from agricul-
ture to manufactures, 204; co-opera-
tion in agriculture, 281; strikes some-
times successful, 389. The Econom-
ic Position of the British Laborer,
laboring class insufficiently clothed,
58; statement of the wage-fund
doctrine, 139; Speeches, truck, 836;
opposition to the extension of female
labor, 377. 378??,; Daily News, con-
dition of agricultural laborers near
Salisbury, 346.

Ff rench, Mr., higgling in Spanish retail
trade, 315/1.

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