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But further, to a philosophic mind, which calmly and soberly considers the subject, there will always be reason to doubt whether even what we call the evils incidental to the exercise of • private judgment' are so in reality; and whether they are not connected directly, or indirectly, with more than a counterbalancing amount of good.

To confine ourselves to the common argument against the exercise of the Right' derived from the various interpretations of the Scriptures,---we are by no means convinced that absolute unity of opinion would be a benefit at all. If, as we devoutly believe, an honest investigation of their contents will in general secure even to the humblest a knowledge of all that is essential to salvation, the exercise of the right is vindicated; unless it be pretended that it is a dreadful evil that men should differ on points which are not essential to their salvation. Now, that there has ever been a remarkable concurrence of opinion with regard to the most important doctrines, is undeniable. The only question therefore is, whether the remaining differences may not be connected with advantages greater than would accrue from absolute uniformity of opinion ? This we do not think it difficult to prove.

That the Scriptures should be attended with difficulties, was fit in itself; that they should lead to varieties of opinion, was an incidental result of the prevailing reasons which induced the Divine Author to leave them on its pages. Such reasons we may readily discover.

With an overbalance of evidence in behalf of the authority of the Bible generally, and of its more important revelations, it was still not desirable that that evidence should be of such a nature as to necessitate conviction; and render the exercise of docility, candour, and faith impracticable-still less to make all diligence in its study unnecessary: it was fit that the Scriptures should contain some obscurities on minor points, to exercise patience, stimulate enquiry, teach humility, rebuke pride, exercise faith. Nor is this all. The differences of opinion thence resulting, afford the various communities of Christians, if they would but use it, the most obvious and easy method of testing and exercising the practical power of those principles of charity which they all profess. Charity towards those who think just with ourselves, is but an enlarged selfishness: we are pleased to look at the reflection of our own fair orthodoxy in the mirror of their minds. But to feel that charity, and to manifest it in defiance of the points on which we differ, requires and implies a higher principle. Charity to our own party is often but another name for party spirit: give us the charity which constrains • Judah not to vex Ephraim, and • Ephraim not to envy Judah'—the charity which induced the Samaritan to perform offices of kindness to the perishing Jew. Painful as are the disputes and controversies on non-essential points, we believe the time will come when the sublime spectacle of essential unity amidst minor differences will be fully realized; and when it will be seen how superior, after all, is such unity of the spirit' to any 'uniformity of the letter.'

We may add, that to demand that there should be perfect uniformity in religious opinions, is to demand a mere impossibility, so long as minds are differently constituted. This is contirmed by the general analogies observable in the constitution and development of human nature. God has so constructed, us, that while there is remarkable uniformity, both in the physical and moral peculiarities on which the very existence and social wellbeing of the race depend, there are endless diversities on all points which do not involve them. It is much the same with Christianity. The learned and the unlearned, if sincere, generally form a very similar notion of its fundamental doctrines. All beyond (and even the theory of these) is the source of interminable diversities of sentiment.

Let men say what they will, they will find it hard to discover any volume which, in all its great outlines, is plainer than the Book of God. It has its obscurities and its mysteries, it is truewisely left there, as already attempted to be shown; but they trouble not the humble and docile-myriads of whom, without any teacher but itself, have learned from it enough to teach them how to live well, and how to die happy. Its light has illumined the whole pathway of their present pilgrimage, and penetrated the depths of the sepulchre with the radiance of that · hope which ' is full of immortality. So far from its being true, that the indiscriminate exercise of the Right of private judgment amongst the humbler classes leads to interminable diversities of interpre

ation and of doctrine, it is notorious that most of the profitless controversies which have obscured the Bible and cursed the world, have originated with those who have assumed to be the religious instructors of mankind. They have not sprung up amongst the poor, nor by them have they been cherished. It is, therefore, with a feeling of just indignation, that we hear professed Christians and professed Protestants—at all events those who are not professed Romanists—giving utterance to the sentiment, that the private student of Scripture would not ordinarily

gain a knowledge of the gospel from it. Such a doctrine is not merely an insult to common sense—it is a libel on the Divine

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Author of the Bible. Are we to believe that, “knowing perfectly what was in man,' he has yet so constructed the volume of revelation, that even its fundamental doctrines remain an inscrutable mystery ? Or did the great Teacher he sent, teach in so peculiar a manner, that even the more important truths he taught remained unintelligible? If so, we must receive in a new and monstrous sense the assurance, that he spake as never man spake;' that he spake not so much to reveal, as to disguise ! But this record remains—that while learned ignorance cavilled and derided, "THE COMMON PEOPLE HEARD HIM GLADLY.'

Far different from the judgment of these spurious Protestants was that of Bishop Horsley, with whose weighty words we shall now conclude. 'I will not scruple to assert, that the most illi

terate Christian, if he can but read his English Bible, and will take the pains to read it in this manner, (comparing parallel ' passages,) will not only attain all that practical knowledge

which is necessary to his salvation; but, by God's blessing, he • will become learned in every thing relating to his religion in • such a degree, that he will not be liable to be misled, either .by the refined arguments or by the false assertions of those who * endeavour to ingraft their own opinion upon the oracles of God. • He may safely be ignorant of all philosophy except what is to • be learned from the sacred books; which, indeed, contain the • highest philosophy adapted to the lowest apprehensions. He

may safely remain ignorant of all history, except so much of the . history of the first ages of the Jewish and of the Christian • Church, as is to be gathered from the canonical books of the • Old and New Testament. Let him study these in the manner • I recommend, and let him never cease to pray for the illumina• tion of that spirit by which these books were dictated; and the • whole compass of abstruse philosophy and recondite history, • shall furnish no argument with which the perverse will of man • shall be able to shake this learned Christian's faith. The Bible,

thus studied, will indeed prove to be what we Protestants esteem • it—a certain and sufficient rule of faith and practice.'

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ART. V.- The Sanative Influence of Climate : with an Account of

the Best Places of Resort for Invalids. By Sir James CLARK, BART., M.D., F.R.S. Physician in Ordinary to the Queen. 8vo. Third Edition. London: 1842.

The branch of Medical Philosophy which contemplates man

as influenced in his bodily or physical condition by the medium in which he lives, and by the things with which he is perpetually in connexion, is now commonly termed Hygeiene or Hygene, from the Greek word signifying health_since it necessarily involves the consideration of every thing concerned in the preservation of this invaluable blessing. This term, however, although now pretty generally employed by our more recent medical writers from the absolute want of some word of the kind, has failed to naturalize itself in England; possibly because the subject which it is intended to characterize has been singularly neglected in this country, We should not quarrel about a name, however, if we had the satisfaction of being able to state, that the thing itself was more studied and better understood.

But we regret to say, that extremely little has been hitherto done towards the formation of even an outline of a general system of Hygiene applicable to the inhabitants of this country; or even towards the investigation of the more common causes of disease, as these prevail in particular towns or districts. Of the vast importance of such an enquiry, in a national point of view, no doubt can exist; since it must be admitted, in the first place, that the prevention is an object of greater consequence to the community than even the cure of disease; and secondly, that the only rational system of prevention must be founded on an accurate knowledge of the causes of our maladies. But these causes can be ascertained only by a close investigation of the circumstances under which disease occurs, in a great variety of situations; in other words, by a comprehensive system of Medical Topography.

The subject of Climate cannot be strictly classed among those belonging either to Medical Topography or Hygiene. Both these contemplate the object in reference to healthy individuals -the former being devoted to the investigation of the causes of disease; the latter teaching us the art of escaping, as much as possible, from the operation of these causes. But the labours of those who follow the track of the author of the work before us, are of a higher kind, and of much greater difficulty. They have to study the objects of Medical Topography, and

to apply the doctrines of Hygiene, not to the state of health _that is, to a comparatively fixed state ; but to that of diseasea state extremely various, and constantly varying. This application requires a degree of knowledge and experience which can fall to the lot of only few individuals. It does not by any means follow, for example, that because a certain climate or locality is innoxious in the case of a person in health, it will therefore be so in the case of one afflicted with disease ; much less that it will prove beneficial to such a person.

We find many instances of this important fact in the work before us.

With all his noble faculties and high aspirations, man in his present state is still of the earth, earthy, and controlled and modified throughout his whole fabric, mental as well as corporeal, by the influence of the things around him. If, by the superiority of his reasoning faculties, and the greater plasticity of his physical organization, he is, unlike other animals, enabled to pass from one end of the world to the other, and to live and multiply his kind in every climate; he is still, like the inferior creation, subject to the influence of the objects amidst which he lives, on whatever spot he may stay his foot. Every part of the surface of our globe that has been visited by man, is, no doubt, capable of sustaining human life, and is even compatible with health ; but each region will present the physical and moral condition of the inhabitants under a different aspect, according to the character of the climate, and other circumstances amid which they are placed.

The difference, indeed, may be so slight, or of such a kind, as frequently to escape observation ; but it is no less real on this account. And whenever there exists a considerable difference in the external circumstances, the difference in the condition of the animal will be manifest. The modification, however, even when considerable, may still be within the limits of health; this being only a relative term. What may be a state of health to one individual might be felt as disease to another. So it may be with whole classes of individuals. That condition of the physical organization which imparts to the Hottentot's mind 'the highest sense of healthful enjoyment, might be actual disease, or, at least, unhealthy discomfort, to the Esquimaux or Samoiede.

It is an object of the very highest interest to the medical philosopher to investigate the nature of the local circumstances which produce these important changes; and it will require centuries of patient induction to detect and expose the whole of them. At present we are probably only acquainted with a few of the more striking and obvious; but the potency of such as are known is sufficiently manifest. Without entering upon the great question VOL, LXXVI. NO, CLIV.

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