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clining to the east, about twelve for the siege of Jerusalem; here miles in length. Josephus met a general council in the frequently mentions this place. twelfth ceistury.

This city ACRABATENE, another dis. successively under the domin. trict of Judea on the fron. ions of the Romans and of the tier of Idumea, towards the Moors, and afterwards for a southern extremity of the Dead long time, was the theatre of Sea. See Macab. v, 3. contention, between the Chris

ACRE, or Acco, or St. tians, and the infidels in the JOHN DE ACRE, a sea port progress of the crusades. In town, on the Phænician coast 1189 the armaments of Europe in Syria. Its ancient name was burst on this devoted place; Acco, or Accho, and is called for two years they pressed the by the Arabs Akka. It was seige; nine battles displayed afterwards denominated Ptole. the courage of the warriors; mais, from one of the Ptole. the besieging camp was thinned mys in Egypt, and Acra, on by sickness, by famine, and the account of its fortifications, and sword. Despair began to preimportance; whence the knights vail; in the spring of the seco of St. John, of Jerusalem called ond year the royal fleets of it St. John de Acre. The situ. England and France arrived ation of Acre has every possi. in the bay of Acre; Acre subble advantage both of sea and mitted, but not till three-thousland; it is encompassed on the and Moslems were beheaded; north and east, by a spacious one hundred thousand Chris. and fertile plain, on the west tians had fallen in battle, and by the Mediterranean, and on a greater number perished by the south by a large bay; ex. disease. After the loss of Je. tending from the city to rusalem, in unsuccessful atmount Carmel, a strong town, tempts for recovering the Holy and convenient harbors. It Land, from the possession of was strong enough to resist the the Saracens, renewed by St. arms of Israel, when they sub. Louis, with the co-operation dued the surrounding country. of Edward I, and other powe Asher did not drive out the ers, Acre became the metropinhabitants of Accho. Here olis of the Latin Christians, the apostle Paul preached the and was adorned with strong gospel; here Titus tarried and stately buildings, with some time to make preparation aqueducts, an artificial port,

and a double wall. Its pop. independence against the whole ulation was increased, by an force of the Ottoman empire, influx of pilgrims and fugitives, till the year 1775, when he and the trade of the east and was basely assassinated, by orwest was attracted to this con- der of the Ottoman porte, at venient station. The city was the advanced age of eighty-six besieged by Turks under Sul. years. The new city is smaltan Khalil, at the head of a ler than the old; its inhabitants, large army, furnished with a lately, were forty thousand. tremendous train of artillery. The Greeks have here two After a seige of thirty-three churches, the Latins three, the days, the double wall was Maronites one, it is a bishop's forced by the Moslems, the see. The Jews have one principal tower yielded to their small synagogue, the Mahomengines, and the city was en- etans three mosques. Acre tirely destroyed, May, 19, has been rendered, by the 1291. Sixty thousand Chris- works of Dijezzar, one of the tians were devoted to death or principal towns on the coast. slavery; a miserable remnant The mosques of this Pacha with the king of Jerusalem, are much admired. The Bathe patriarch, and the great zar, or covered market, is not master of the hospital, fled to inferior to the bazars of Aleppo, the sea shore, and escaped to and its public fountain is supeCyprus. It was famous in the rior in elegance to those of time of the Crusades. Here Damascus. The widest street Edward I, was wounded by a is completely filled by a pass. poisoned arrow; he was cured ing camel; the place is un. by his wife Eleanor, who suck, healthy; it has lately been ed the poison from his veins. brought into notice by the After the expulsion of the cri. siege of Bonaparte and his resaders, Acre exhibited a scene pulse by Sir Sidney Smith, a of magnificent ruins, and re celebrated English officer, in mained in a degree deserted, 1798. The principal articles and desolated, till about the of commerce at Acre are corn year 1750, when it was fortifi- and cotton: but the trade is moed, by Dahier, an Arabian nopolized by the Pacha in his Sheick, who obtained the ap- own hands. The French have pellation of Prince of St. John usually a consul in this place, of Acre, and maintained his and Russia a resident. It is

XV, 22.

twenty-seven miles south of

ADAMAH, or ADMAH, Tyre, seventy north of Jerusa- one of the five wicked cities, lem, eighty-two west of Damas. which were destroyed by fire cus, lat. 32, 40, north, long. from heaven, and buried un39, 25, east. I only add that der the waters of the Dead Sea, the port of Acre is one of the (Gen. xiv, 2; and Deut. xxii, best on the coast; the town shel. 23.) It was the most easterly ters it from the north and north of all those, which was swallow. west winds. The fortifications ed up, and there is some probat present are of no great im- ability that it was not entirely portance.

Mount Carmel, sunk under the waters; or that which commands the town to the inhabitants of the country the south, is a flattened cone, built a new city of the same very rocky, 2,000 feet high. name upon the eastern shore

Mariti, D'Anville, &c. of the Dead Sea; for Isaiah, acADADA, a city in the cording to the Septuagint says, southern part of Judea. Josh. "God will destroy the Moab.

ites, the city of Ar, and the ADAD-RIMMON, or HA- remnant of Adamah.' D A D-RIMMON, a city in the ADAMAH, was also a city valley of Jezreel, (2 Kings of the tribe of Naphtali, (Josh. xxiii, 29.) There the fatal xix, 36.) The Septuagint, battle was fought in which Jo- call it Armath, and the Vul. siab, king of Judah, was killed gate, Edema. by the forces of Pharoah-Ne- ADASA, was a city of Cacho, king of Egypt. It is sit- naan, in the tribe of Ephraim, uated ten miles from Jezreel, Lat. 33. and seventeen from Cæsarea in ADIDA, a city of Judah, at Palestine.

which place Simeon MaccaΑΙ M, or ADOM, (Josh. bæus encamped, in order to iii, 16;) a city situated on the dispute the entrance into the banks of the River Jordan, to- country with Tryphon, who wards the south of the sea, had treacherously seized on his Cinnereth or Galilee. In the brother Jonathan at Ptolemais. vicinity of this town, the wa. Both Eusebius and Jerome tell ters of the Jordan were arrest. us, that all the open plain ed, that the Israelites might about Eleutheropolis north and pass over the channel on dry west, was in their time called ground.

Sephela. And in 1 Macab.

xü, 38, it is said, that Simeon which in his time was called "set up Adida in Sephela, and the Adriatic sea. The whole made it strong with gates and sea adjacent to Sicily, the loni. bars.” Lat. 31, 44.

an, and Tuscan seas, on the ADITHA, or ADATHA, a south-west of Italy, were calcity belonging to the tribe of led Adria. Judah, (Josh. xv, 36.) ADORAIM, a town of Pal.

ADRUMETUM, or ADestine in the tribe of Judah, RAMYFTIUM, a city of Lybia fortified by Rehoboam.

in Africa, capital of the prov. ADRIA, a city upon the

ince of Byzantium We read Tarțario in the state of Venice. in the Acts of the Apostles, It gives name to the Adriatic (xvii

, 1, 2;) that St. Paul in

his first voyage to Italy, em: sea, which is sometimes called

barked in a vessel that was Adria, as in Acts xxvii, 27.

going to Adrumetum. But ADRiA, the Adriatic sea. Calmet, Wells, and Whitby, Here the ship in which St. think it much more probable, Paul was a prisoner was over

that we should read Adram. taken with a dreadful storm. myttium in the text, because we Fearing they should fall upon know St. Paul was going into the quicksands, they struck sail, and let their ship drive. This Asia, as St. Luke testifies; and

Adramınyttium was a maritime tempest, continued a whole

town of Myssia in Asia Minor, fortnight. It has with some propriety been asked how this

over against the island of Lesship, tossed up and down the bos, at the foot of mount Ida. Adriatic, should drive on the ADULLAM, a city belongisland of Malta. The easy ing to the tribe of Judah, (Josh. solution is, that anciently this XV, 35;) situated in the southname extended beyond the ern part of this tribe and west limits of the Adriatic gulf, and from Hebron toward the Dead was given to an indeterminate sea. Rehoboam rebuilt this portion of the sea, as we now place, and strengthened it with say the Levant, &c. Ptolemy good fortifications, (Chron. says that Sicily was bounded xi, 7, 8;) Eusebius says that in east by the Adriatic, that Crete his time, it was

a large town, was washed on the west by the ten miles from Eleutheropolis, Adriatic, and Strabo says that eastward. Jerom says that in the Jonian gulf is a part of that, his day it was not a small town.

Judas Maccabæus, encamped the country between the Euin the plain of Adullam, and phrates and the river of Egypt. there passed the Sabbath-day, Some have thought this was (2 Macc. xii, 38.) Joshua kill. the Nile, but evidence is wanted the king of Adullam, (xii, ing, that the territories of Israel 15.) David hid himself in the ever did extend to the Nile. cave of Adullam, (1 Sam.xxii,l, It seems that the river of E2,&c.) and here his parents and gypt was a small stream, for a number of valiant men re- the Scriptures call the Euphrapaired to him. This place, tes a great river compared with once called the glory of Israel, this; but this is not true, if the has long been reduced to ruins. Nile be intended. See EGYPT, In most of the mountains of RIVER OF. Lat. 31, 10. Canaan were caverns, where in ÆLMOR, a sacerdotal city time of war the people con- in the tribe of Benjamin. cealed themselves. Kimpton. ÆNAM, or Ænan a town

ADUMMIM, a town and of Canaan, in the time of the mountain in the tribe of Benja: patriarchs, but a deserted place min. Josb.xv,9;xviii, 17. Some in the fourth century. It stood place it to the south, others to on the road to Timnath, which the north of Jericho. It is sup: was a considerable village, beposed, that this town is on the tween Jerusalem and Diospolis, road from Jerusalem to Jericho, Here was a spring from which and that here the traveller was the place received its name, and robbed, mentioned Luke xth, here was an idol, worshipped who was so kindly relieved by by the heathen inhabitants with the good Samaritan. The place great veneration. was notorious for the haunt of There is, however, a dispute, robbers, so much so, that a whether the word be not an castle was built there for the appellative, signifying, an open defence of travellers. Its very place, as it is in our bibles, or name is supposed to express the dividing of two roads, or its character; it signifies the two eyes, as a traveller in such red, or bloody ones.

a place looks both ways to asÆGYPT, See EGYPT. certain, which is the right, or ÆGYPT,

OF, a two fountains or wells. The stream which was the limit of Septuagint consider it a proper Judea south. God promised name, and translate it at the to Abraham to give him all gates of Enan, Gen. xxxviii,

RIVER

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