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clining to the east, about twelve miles in length. Josephus frequently mentions this place.

ACRABATENE, another district of Judea on the frontier of Idumea, towards the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. See Macab. v, 3.

ACRE, or Acco, or ST. JOHN DE ACRE, a sea port town, on the Phoenician coast in Syria. Its ancient name was Acco, or Accho, and is called by the Arabs Akka. It was afterwards denominated Ptolemais, from one of the Ptole mys in Egypt, and Acra, on account of its fortifications, and importance; whence the knights of St. John, of Jerusalem called it St. John de Acre. The situation of Acre has every possible advantage both of sea and land; it is encompassed on the north and east, by a spacious and fertile plain, on the west by the Mediterranean, and on the south by a large bay; ex. tending from the city to mount Carmel, a strong town, and convenient harbors. It was strong enough to resist the arms of Israel, when they subdued the surrounding country. Asher did not drive out the inhabitants of Accho. Here the apostle Paul preached the gospel; here Titus tarried some time to make preparation

for the siege of Jerusalem; here met a general council in the twelfth century. This city successively under the dominions of the Romans and of the Moors, and afterwards for a long time, was the theatre of contention, between the Christians, and the infidels in the progress of the crusades. In 1189 the armaments of Europe burst on this devoted place; for two years they pressed the seige; nine battles displayed the courage of the warriors; the besieging camp was thinned by sickness, by famine, and the sword. Despair began to prevail; in the spring of the second year the royal fleets of England and France arrived in the bay of Acre; Acre submitted, but not till three-thousand Moslems were beheaded; one hundred thousand Chris tians had fallen in battle, and a greater number perished by disease. disease. After the loss of Jerusalem, in unsuccessful attempts for recovering the Holy Land, from the possession of the Saracens, renewed by St. Louis, with the co-operation of Edward I, and other pow ers, Acre became the metrop olis of the Latin Christians, and was adorned with strong and stately buildings, with aqueducts, an artificial port,

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and a double wall. Its pop ulation was increased, by an influx of pilgrims and fugitives, and the trade of the east and west was attracted to this convenient station. The city was besieged by Turks under Sul. tan Khalil, at the head of a large army, furnished with a tremendous train of artillery. After a seige of thirty-three days, the double wall was forced by the Moslems, the principal tower yielded to their engines, and the city was entirely destroyed, May, 19, 1291. Sixty thousand Christians were devoted to death or slavery; a miserable remnant with the king of Jerusalem, the patriarch, and the great master of the hospital, fled to the sea shore, and escaped to Cyprus. It was famous in the time of the Crusades. Here Edward I, was wounded by a poisoned arrow; he was cured by his wife Eleanor, who suck ed the poison from his veins. After the expulsion of the crusaders, Acre exhibited a scene of magnificent ruins, and remained in a degree deserted, and desolated, till about the year 1750, when it was fortified, by Dahier, an Arabian Sheick, who obtained the appellation of Prince of St. John of Acre, and maintained his

independence against the whole force of the Ottoman empire, till the year 1775, when he was basely assassinated, by order of the Ottoman porte, at the advanced age of eighty-six years. The new city is smaller than the old; its inhabitants, lately, were forty thousand. The Greeks have here two churches, the Latins three, the Maronites one, it is a bishop's see. The Jews have one small synagogue, the Mahometans three mosques. Acre has been rendered, by the works of Dijezzar, one of the principal towns on the coast. The mosques of this Pacha are much admired. The Bazar, or covered market, is not inferior to the bazars of Aleppo, and its public fountain is superior in elegance to those of Damascus. The widest street is completely filled by a passing camel; the place is unhealthy; it has lately been brought into notice by the siege of Bonaparte and his repulse by Sir Sidney Smith, a celebrated English officer, in 1798. The principal articles of commerce at Acre are corn and cotton: but the trade is monopolized by the Pacha in his own hands. The French have usually a consul in this place, and Russia a resident. It is

twenty-seven miles south of Tyre, seventy north of Jerusalem, eighty-two west of Damascus, lat. 32, 40, north, long. 39, 25, east. I only add that the port of Acre is one of the best on the coast; the town shelters it from the north and north west winds. The fortifications at present are of no great importance. Mount Carmel, which commands the town to the south, is a flattened cone, very rocky, 2,000 feet high.

Mariti, D'Anville, &c. ADADA, a city in the southern part of Judea. Josh.

xv, 22.

ADAD-RIMMON, or HADAD-RIMMON, a city in the valley of Jezreel, (2 Kings xxiii, 29.) There the fatal battle was fought in which Josiah, king of Judah, was killed by the forces of Pharoah-Necho, king of Egypt. It is situated ten miles from Jezreel, and seventeen from Cæsarea in Palestine.

ADAM, or ADOM, (Josh. iii, 16;) a city situated on the banks of the River Jordan, towards the south of the sea, Cinnereth or Galilee. In the vicinity of this town, the waters of the Jordan were arrest. ed, that the Israelites might pass over the channel on dry ground.

ADAMAH, or ADMAH, one of the five wicked cities, which were destroyed by fire from heaven, and buried under the waters of the Dead Sea, (Gen. xiv, 2; and Deut. xxii, 23.) It was the most easterly of all those, which was swallowed up, and there is some probability that it was not entirely sunk under the waters; or that the inhabitants of the country built a new city of the same name upon the eastern shore of the Dead Sea; for Isaiah, according to the Septuagint says, 'God will destroy the Moabites, the city of Ar, and the remnant of Adamah.'

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ADRIA, a city upon the Tartario in the state of Venice. It gives name to the Adriatic sea, which is sometimes called Adria, as in Acts xxvii, 27.

ADRIA, the Adriatic sea. Here the ship in which St. Paul was a prisoner was overtaken with a dreadful storm. Fearing they should fall upon the quicksands, they struck sail, and let their ship drive. This tempest, continued a whole fortnight. It has with some propriety been asked how this ship, tossed up and down the Adriatic, should drive on the island of Malta. The easy solution is, that anciently this name extended beyond the limits of the Adriatic gulf, and was given to an indeterminate portion of the sea, as we now say the Levant, &c. Ptolemy says that Sicily was bounded east by the Adriatic, that Crete was washed on the west by the Adriatic, and Strabo says that the Jonian gulf is a part of that,

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Judas Maccabæus, encamped in the plain of Adullam, and there passed the Sabbath-day, (2 Macc. xii, 38.) Joshua killed the king of Adullam, (xii, 15.) David hid himself in the cave of Adullam, (1Sam.xxii, 1, 2,&c.) and here his parents,and a number of valiant men repaired to him. This place, once called the glory of Israel, has long been reduced to ruins. In most of the mountains of Canaan were caverns, where in time of war the people concealed themselves. Kimpton.

ADUMMIM, a town and mountain in the tribe of Benjamin. Josh.xv,9;xviii, 17. Some place it to the south, others to the north of Jericho. It is sup. posed, that this town is on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, and that here the traveller was robbed, mentioned Luke xth, who was so kindly relieved by the good Samaritan. The place was notorious for the haunt of robbers, so much so, that a castle was built there for the defence of travellers. Its very name is supposed to express its character; it signifies the red, or bloody ones.

OF, a

ÆGYPT, See EGYPT. EGYPT, RIVER OF, stream which was the limit of Judea south. God promised to Abraham to give him all

the country between the Euphrates and the river of Egypt. Some have thought this was the Nile, but evidence is wanting, that the territories of Israel ever did extend to the Nile. It seems that the river of Egypt was a small stream, for the Scriptures call the Euphrates a great river compared with this; but this is not true, if the Nile be intended. See EGYPT, RIVER OF. Lat. 31, 10.

ÆLMOR, a sacerdotal city in the tribe of Benjamin.

ENAM, or ÆNAN a town of Canaan, in the time of the patriarchs, but a deserted place in the fourth century. It stood on the road to Timnath, which was a considerable village, between Jerusalem and Diospolis, Here was a spring from which the place received its name, and here was an idol, worshipped by the heathen inhabitants with great veneration.

There is, however, a dispute, whether the word be not an appellative, signifying, an open place, as it is in our bibles, or the dividing of two roads, or two eyes, as a traveller in such a place looks both ways to ascertain, which is the right, or two fountains or wells. The Septuagint consider it a proper name, and translate it at the gates of Enan, Gen. xxxviii,


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