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glory, for Thy mercy and Thy truth's sake.” We must recognize a higher Power, of which he and his associate are the instruments, and watch the progress of their work with fitting reverence.

Before giving a brief sketch of the lives and labours of these unwearying American evangelists, it may be appropriate to notice previous "revival” services, as they have been named, in this country. The term has been applied to efforts made on a large scale, and quite unconnected with any particular Church or denomination, to bring the Gospel to those who are apparently beyond the reach of the ordinary efforts of the ministers of the churches, and to preach the Gospel so simply and effectively that the result may be to draw sinners to the Saviour. In these efforts, pious ministers of nearly all religious bodies have united, and very remarkable results have been exhibited. It has been objected, and not without some

dity, that mental, even hysterical excitement, was sometimes mistaken for a change of heart, and that injury was occasionally received by weak and over-sensitive persons. There has, undoubtedly, been some foundation for such assertions; but they do not apply to the services of Moody and Sankey, who are always anxious not to encourage merely physical excitement, and who judiciously discriminate between that and genuine spiritual conviction. In the words of Professor G. W. Blaikie, in the British and Turcign Evangelical Review :

“ If a Christian minister were to bring together all the best cases that have occurred in his ministry within a period of twelve or fifteen years, they would form a tolerably correct counterpart of the results during the present period of awakening. It is a revival without many of the common accompaniments of a revival. As some one has expressed it, it is ordinary work with extraordinary power. The singular quietness and orderliness with which it has gone on has struck every one.

There has been no sensationalism, no undne excitement, no prostrations, no screaming, no fondness for late meetings, no waiting till two in the morning for the illapse of the Spirit, no hysterics, and no estatics.

Fourteen or fifteen years ago, when the last considerable movement of the kind occurred in this country, the subject was embarrassed by questionable accompaniments-physical prostrations and excitements, which were especially common in Ireland, and tendencies in some quarters to erroneous teaching. Any approval of that movement was always

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qualified in the judgment of the sober-minded by considerable abatements; and to those to whom these abatements were specially obnoxious, the whole thing presented a repulsive aspect. If we have now got revival without artificial excitement, if the ordinary means of grace have received new power, if persons who know the truth have been urged and enabled to decide for Christ without illegitimate pressure, if the vital force of the Church has been increased without the introduction of any countervailing weakness, it is evident that we have got a most important result. thoughtful man admits that, under the ordinary ministry, there is a liability to tameness in dealing with souls, and that occasionally an extraordinary appeal is greatly to be desired.”

Among the more remarkable of modern “revivals," we may mention that which took place in the United States ip 1857, when Mr. Lamphier conducted the famous services at Boston, and that which, two years afterwards, was experienced in Scotland, the north of Ireland (particularly Belfast), and some parts of England, with very interesting results ; not, however, devoid of those " sensational” features to which we have alluded. The plan regularly adopted by Mr. Moody, by which those who exhibit emotion are invited into an inquiry room, where they are calmly conversed with by judicious and experienced persons of their own sex and age, tends to check exuberance of emotion, and afford comfort and consolation to the troubled mind.

As to the value of these “inquiry meetings," Mr. Moody bas himself given direct testimony in a paper published in the Christian :

“I believe the preaching would be much more practical and effective if the minister understood more of the difficulties of those to whom he ministers, and I have found no greater help in discovering the wants of the people than in the inquiry meeting, right after the preaching of the word. Jesus encouraged His disciples to ask Him questions, saying to them, "Have ye understood all these things ? ' (Mat. xiii. 51.) I feel confident that if the pastor invited his people to come freely to him with their questions, setting aside a special time for them to come, they would feel more free to accept than if left to come at any time, though they might, of course, be invited to do that also. All through the New Testament we find inquiry, commencing with Jolin the Baptist; among the inquirers

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there being many of publicans, saying, “Master, what shall we do?' (Luke iii. 13.) At Nazareth they rejected the idea of meeting with the Saviour for inquiry, and rejected the blessing, being “wise in their own conceits' and unwilling to ask further of the things they had heard. In the 13th chapter of Matthew we read of the disciples

ing to Jesus, enquiring what His parable of the sower meant; and He did not rebuke them, but gave the explanation. In the same chapter we have the parable of the tares; and again, after the multitude had gone away, the disciples came to inquire of Jesus concerning its meaning. And, again in the 15th chapter, Peter comes to Jesus, saying, “Declare unto us this parable.' time the disciples come to inquire why they did not succeed in casting out the devil out of the possessed one; and, at another time it is to ask, how long they must exercise their forbearance with their brother and forgive him. Thus, not only did Christ receive the disciples into these meetings for inquiry, but received sinners, insomuch that the Pharisees murmured. We find the young man coming to Jesus, saying, “ Master, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?' And, from the inquiry of Nicodemus. with Jesus one night, we have these loving words, which, in every age since, have been pointing sinners, despairing of hope, to God who so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son.' From this interview with Nicodemus we find Jesus going to meet a poor Samaritan woman, not even waiting for her to confess her guilt to Him and ask Him first, but using the water she was about to draw as an introduction, and speaking to her of the living water which He was willing to give if she would take it. If Christ encouraged the people to come to Him and inquire of His kingdom, should they not now be encouraged to come and speak of Him ? On the day of Pentecost we read of a great cry being made by many who had been pricked by the words preached through the power of the Holy Ghost, · Men and brethren, what shall we do?' The three thousand added to the Church that day show the result of the inquiry. The thought has risen in our minds, what would some of those who oppose the inquiry meeting do, should one hundred make the same

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cry now ?"

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES AND PERSONAL

CHARACTERISTICS.

Tre men are nothing, the work everything—is the leading thought of Mr. Moody, and he is unquestionably right, so far as the result he aimis at—the acceptance of the Gospel mission—is concerned ; but we cannot avoid feeling an interest in the personality of men who have been the instruments of achieving so much, and we shall not commit the error of ranking the individuality of the men higher than the work they are entrusted to do, if we collect, from such materials as are available, some notice of their lives and labours.

Mr. D. L. Moody is a native of the State of Massachusetts, in the United States, by birth a New England man; if not by actual descent a representative of the Pilgrim Fathers, who sought in the New World the liberty of conscience the Old World denied, certainly a representative of the entire trust in the guidance of Providence, the direct teaching and support to be received by those who believe, and the unfailing and faithful courage which animated and supported the little communities of the early ages of the colony. lle was born in 1837, and is, therefore, now in his 38th year. While he was yet a child his father died, and he was left to struggle in the world. For a time he worked on a farm, but having no liking for agricultural pursuits, he went at the age of eighteen to Bosto:), where he obtained employment more agreeable to his tastes. Like many other New Englanders, such religious impressions as he experienced were of the vague kind which Unitarianism produces—the Unitarianism which, in that part of the United States has to a large extent superseded the older Calvinistic teaching; but he had not been long in Boston before he experienced a change of heart, and his conversion was followed by his becoming an earnest and spirited Sunday-school teacher. Shortly afterwards be removed to Chicago, where he obtained a situation as clerk in a boot and shoe store. That he was diligent in business we cannot doubt, for not only would he, from a sense of religious duty, perform his daily work well, but his earnest, energetic nature would show itself in whatever he undertook to do. But he felt that the salvation of souls was the great object to which he should devote himself, and no sooner was he settled at Chicago than he applied to the superintendent of a

Sunday nehool to give him a class. The reply was, we will not venture to judge the motive which induced it." You may have a class, but you must yourself find the children to attend it.” Young Moody was not to be daunted or turned from his object. In a few hours he had collected eighty children desiring instruction, and the fruit of his earnest labours was very soon apparent. The young teacher gathered around him every Sunday a number of children, teaching from the Bible, and many conversions were the result. His class greatly increased in number. A large room, used during the week as a dancing saloon, was hired, and here Moody taught and preached every Sunday for several years. At length, in 1865, being then twenty-eight years of age, he entirely disconnected himself from business, and resolved to devote himself henceforth to spiritual work. A sum of £4000 was collected, and a church and mission house were built, and Mr. Moody entered upon regular pastoral duties, which he continued with eminent success.

Previous to this, Mr. Moody had been an active member of the Christian Commission, a body organized to attend the army during the terrible civil war between the Northern and Southern States. He had been appointed to this commission as a delegate for Chicago, and was one of the four committee men. His attendance upon the wounded and dying was productive of much spiritual good, and he frequently refers, in his addresses, to his experiences among the terrible scenes afforded by the battle-fields of that great war. He had also found time for a brief visit to this country, in 1861, and made many friends liere, preparing the way for the invitation to undertake the work which is now producing such astonishing results.

Returning to Chicago, Mr. Moody entered upon pastoral duties in connexion with the Congregational body, attended religious meetings and conventions, and became widely known for the remarkable success which attended his evangelical ministrations. On the evening of the 8th of October, 1871, the services at his church had just been concluded, and the congregation wending their way homewards, when the “city of the lakes" was alarmed by the loud ringing of the fire bell, announcing the outbreak of that almost unprecedented conflagration which raged for four days, ncarly destroying the city, causing the loss of 250 lives, and reducing nearly 100,000 persons to a state of desti.

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