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singularly deserves. We must confine of the Father; that he could suffer eveourselves to the single verse which we ry thing which I can suffer, except the have selected as our text, and which, in remorse of a guilty conscience; that itself, is so full of information that there he could weep every tear which I can may be difficulty in giving to each part weep, except the tear of repentance ; the requisite notice.
that he could fear with every fear, hope The verse refers to the Redeemer in with every hope, and joy with every his humiliation, but cannot, as we shall joy, which I may entertain as a man, find, be fairly interpreted without taking and not be ashamed of as a Christian ; for granted his pre-existent glory. St. there is our creed on the humanity of Paul, you observe, speaks of Christ as the Mediator. If you could once prove "found in fashion as a man,” and as that Christ was not perfect man-bearthen humbling himself, so as to become ing always in mind that sinfulness is
obedient unto death, even the death not essential to this perfectness—there of the cross.” It will be well that we would be nothing worth battling for in advance a few remarks on the phrase the truth that Christ was perfect God: " found in fashion as a man," before we the only Redeemer who can redeem, consider that act of humility here as- like the Goel under the law, my lost cribed to the Savior.
heritage, being necessarily my kins. Now the true huinanity of the Son man; and none being my kinsman who of God is as fundamental an article of is not of the same nature, born of a woChristianity as his true divinity. You man, of the substance of that woman, would as effectually demolish our reli- my brother in all but rebellion, myselí gion by proving that Christ was not real in all but unholiness. inan, as by proving that Christ was not We are bound, therefore, to examine, real God. We must have a mediator with all care, expressions which refer between God and man; and "a media to the humanity of the Savior, and estor is not a mediator of une,"Gal. 3:20, pecially those which may carry the
apbut must partake of the nature of each. pearance of impugning its reality. Now Shall we ever hesitate to pronounce it it is remarkable, and could not be withthe comforting and sustaining thing to out design, that St. Paul uses words the followers of Christ, that the Re- which go not directly to the fact of deemer is, in the strictest sense, their the reality of the humanity, but which kinsman? We may often be required, might almost be thought to evade that in the exercise of the office of an am- fact. He does not broadly and roundly bassador from God, to set ourselves assert, that Christ was man. He takes against what we count erroneous doc. what, at least, may be called a circuittrines touching the humanity of the Sa. ous method, and uses three expressions, vior. But shall it, on this account, be all similar, but none direct. Took
upsupposed that we either underrate, or on him the form of a servant." keep out of sight, this mighty truth of made in the likeness of men.” "Being Christianity, that the Son of God be found in fashion as a man.” There must, came as truly, and as literally, man, as we say, have been some weighty reason 1 myself am man. We cannot, and we with the apostle why he should, as it will not, allow that there was in him were, have avoided the distinct menwhat fountain of evil which there is in tion of Christ's manhood, and have emourselves. We contend that the ab- ployed language which, to a certain exsence of the fountain, and not the mere tent, is ambiguous. Why speak of the prevention of the outbreak of its waters, form of a servant," or the "likeness is indispensable to the constitution of of men," and of" being found in fashion such purity as belonged to the holy as a man,” when he wished to convey child Jesus. But that he was like my- the idea that Christ was actually a serself in all points, my sinfulness only ex- vant, and literally a man? cepted; that his flesh, like mine, could We will, first of all, show you that be lacerated by stripes, wasted by hun. these expressions, however apparently ger, and torn by nails; that his soul, vague and indefinite, could never have like mine, could be assaulted by temp- been intended to bring into question the tation, harassed by Satan, and disquiet- reality of Christ's humility. The aposed under the hidings of the countenance tle employs precisely the same kind of
language in reference to Christ's divi- equal with God; but made himself of Dity. He had before said of the Savior, no reputation, (so we render it, but li"who being in the form of God." If then terally it is, emptied himself') and " the likeness of men," or "the form of took upon him the form of a servant.” a servant,” implied that Christ was not It was, therefore," the form of God” really man, or not really a servant, "the which Christ laid aside. He was still form of God” would imply that he was God, and could not, for a lonely instant, not really God. The several expres- cease to be God. But he did not appear sions must have a similar interpreta- as God. He put from him, or he veiled, tion. And if, therefore, Christ was not those effulgent demonstrations of Deity really man, Christ was not really God; which had commanded the homage, and and what then was he? Neither man, called forth the admiration of the celespor God, is a conclusion for which no tial hierarchy. And though he was, all beretic is prepared. All admit that he the while, God, God as truly, and as acwas God separately, or man separately, tually, as when, in the might of manior God and man conjointly. And there- fested Omnipotence, he filled infinite fore the expressions, " form of God,” space with glorious masses of architec" form of a servant,” must mean lite- ture, still he so restrained the blazings rally God, and literally a servant; other- of Divinity that he could not, in the wise Christ was neither divine nor hu- same sense, be known as God, but wantman, but a phantom of both, and there- ed the form whilst retaining the essence. fore a nothing. So that, whatever St. He divested himself, then, of the form Paul's reasons for employing this kind of God, and assumed, in its stead, the of expression, you see at once that, form or fashion of a man. Heretofore, since he uses it alike, whether in refer- he had both been, and appeared to be ence to the connection of Christ with God. Now he was God, but appeared divinity, or to that with humanity, it as a man. The very being who had dazcan take off nothing from the reality of zled the heavenly hosts in the form of either the manhood, or the Godhead. God, walked the earth in the form and If it took from one, it must take equally fashion of a man. Such, we think, is a from both. And thus Christ would be fair account of the particular phraseleft without any subsistence-a conclu- ology which St. Paul employs. The sion too monstrous for that most cre- apostle is speaking of Christ as more dulous of all things-scepticism. than man. Had Christ been only man,
We are certain, therefore—inasmuch how preposterous to say of him, that as the alternative is an absurdity which he was found in fashion as a man.' waits not for refutation—that when What other fashion, what other outSt. Paul asserts of Christ that he was ward appearance, can a mere man pre"found in fashion as a man,” he intends sent, but the fashion, the outward apnothing at variance with the doctrine pearance of a man? But if Christ were of the real humanity of the Savior. He God, and yet appeared as man, there is points him out as actually man; though, perfect accuracy in the statement that for reasons which remain to be investi- he was " found in fashion as a man;" gated, he adopts the phrase, "the fa- and we can understand, readily enough, shion of a man.”
how he who never ceased, and could Now it cannot, we think, be doubted not cease to be God, might, at one time, that an opposition is designed between manifest divinity in the form of God, the expressions " in the form of God,” and, at another, shroud that divinity in and " found in fashion as a man,” and the form of a servant. that we sball understand the intent of We would pause yet a moment on the latter only through possessing our this point, for it is worth your closest selves of that of the former. If you con- attention. We are told that Christ salt your Bibles, you will perceive the "emptied himself,” so that "though he representation of St. Paul to be, that it was rich, yet for our sakes he became Fas" the form of God” of which Christ poor.” 2 Cor. 8:9. But of what did he emptied himself, or which Christ laid empty bimself ? Not of his being, not aside, when condescending to be born of his nature, not of his attributes. It of a woman. "Who being in the form must be blasphemous to speak of proof God, thought it not robbery to be perties of Godhead as laid aside, or
even suspended. But Christ "emptied the reaping-in of glory from the whole himself” of the glories and the majes- field of the universe to the receiving, ties to which he had claim, and which, comparatively, nothing of bis revenues as he sat on the throne of the heavens, of honor, that we may assert, without he possessed in unmeasured abundance. reserve, and without figure, that he Whatsoever he was, as to nature and who was rich, for our sakes became essence, whilst appearing amongst the poor. "In the form of God," he had angels in the form of God, that he con- acted, as it were, visibly, amid the entinued to be still, when, in the form of raptured plaudits of angel and archa servant, he walked the scenes of hu- angel, cherubim and seraphim. But man habitation. But then the glories of now, in the form of man, he must be the form of God, these for a while he withdrawn from the delighted inspecaltogether abandoned. If indeed he had tions of the occupants of heaven, and appeared upon earth—as, according to act, as powerfully indeed as before, but the dignity of his nature, he had right mysteriously and invisibly, behind a to appear—in the majesty and glory of dark curtain of flesh, and on the dreary the Highest, it might be hard to under-platform of a sin-burdened territory. stand what riches had been lost by di- So that the antithesis, "the form of vinity. The scene of display would God," and " found in fashion as a man,” have been changed. But the splendor marks accurately the change to which of display being unshorn and undimin- the Mediator submitted. And thus, ished, the armies of the sky might have whilst on our former showings, there is congregated round the Mediator, and no impeachment, in the phrase, of the have given in their full tale of homage reality of Christ's humanity, we now and admiration. But, oh, it was poverty extract from the description a clear that the Creator should be moving on witness to the divinity of Jesus, and a province of his own empire, and yet show you that a form of speech which not be recognized nor confessed by his seems, at first sight, vague and indeficreatures. It was poverty that, when nite, was, if not rendered unavoidable, he walked amongst men, scattering yet readily dictated, by the union of blessings as he trode, the anthem of natures in the person of the Redeemer. praise floated not around him, and the But we will now pass on to consider air was often burdened with the curse that act of humility which is ascribed and the blasphemy. It was poverty that, in our text to Christ Jesus. "Being as he passed to and fro through tribes found in fashion as a man, he humbled whom he had made, and whom he had himself, and became obedient unto come down to redeem, scarce a soli- death, even the death of the cross.” tary voic e called him blessed, scarce Now we would have it observed-for a solitary hand was stretched out in some of the greatest truths in theology friendship, and scarce a solitary roof depend on the fact--that the apostle is ever proffered him shelter. And when here speaking of what Christ did after you contrast this deep and desolate po- he had assumed humanity, and not of verty with that exuberant wealth which what he did in assuming humanity. had been always his own, whilst heaven There was an act of humiliation, such continued the scene of his manifesta- as mortal thought cannot compass, in tions—the wealth of the anthem-peal the coming down of Deity, and his of ecstasy from a million rich voices, tabernacling in flesh. We may well exand of the solemn bowing down of claim, wonder, O heavens, and be astonsparkling multitudes, and of the glow- ished, 0 earth, when we remember that ing homage of immortal hierarchies, He whom the universe cannot contain, whensoever he showed forth his power did, literally, condescend to circumor his purposes-ye cannot fail to per- scribe himself within the form of a serceive that, in taking upon him flesh, the vant; and that in no figure of speech, Eternal Son descended, most literally, but in absolute, though mysterious refrom abundance to want; and that, ality," the Word was made flesh,” St. though he continued just as mighty as John, 1 : 14, and the Son of the Highbefore, just as infinitely gifted with all est born of a pure virgin. We shall the stores and resources of essential di- never find terms in which to embody vinity, the transition was so total, from even our own conceptions of this unmeasured humiliation; whilst these con- of whom it can be said that he humbled ceptions themselves leave altogether himself in dying? Who can that man unapproached the boundary lines of the be, in whom that was humility which, wonder. Who can "by searching find in others, is necessity ? Has there ever out God ?" Job, 11:7. Who, then, by been the individual amongst the natustriving can calculate the abasement ral descendants of Adam, however rare that God should become man? If I his endowments or splendid his achievecould climb to Deity, I might know ments, however illustrious by the might what it was for Deity to descend into of heroism, or endeared by the warmth dust. But forasmuch as God is inac- of philanthropy, of whom we could say cessible to all my soarings, it can never that it was humility in him to die? It come within thecompass of my imagi- were as just to say that it was humility nation to tell up the amount of conde- in him to have had only five senses, as scension ; and it will always remain a that it was humility in him to die. The prodigy, too large for every thing but most exalted piety, the nearest apfaith, that the Creator coalesced with the proaches to perfection of character, the creature, and so constituted a mediator. widest distances between himself and
But it is not to this act of humilia- all others of the race; these, and a tion that our text bears reference. This hundred the like reasons, would never was the humiliation in the assumption induce us to give barborage, for an inof humanity. But after humanity had stant, to the thought that a man stood been assumed, when Christ was " found exempt from the lot of humanity, or in fashion as a man,” he yet further that it was left, in any sense, to his humbled himself; so that, over and option whether or no he would die. above the humiliation as God, there And, therefore, if there be a strong mewas an humiliation as man. And it is on thod of marking off a man from the this fact that we would fasten your at- crowd of the human species, and of distention. You are to view the Son of|tinguishing him from all who bear the God as having brought himself down same outward appearance, in some 10 the level of humanity, as having laid mightier respects than those of a menaside his dignities, and taken part of tal or moral superiority, is it not the the flesh and the blood of those whom ascribing to him what we may call a he yearned to redeem. But then you lordship over life, or the representing are not to consider that the humiliation him as so literally at liberty to live, that ended here. You are not to suppose it shall be humility in him to die? We that whatsoever came after was wound hold it for an incontrovertible truth, up, so to speak, in the original humilia- that, had St. Paul said nothing of the tion, and thus was nothing more than pre-existent glory, of our Mediator, its fuller developement. God humbled there would have been enough in the himself, and became man. But there expression of our text to satisfy unprewas yet a lower depth to which this judiced minds that a mere man, such first humiliation did not necessarily as one of ourselves, could be no just carry him. "Being found in fashion as description of the Lord Christ Jesus. a man, he humbled himself.”
If it were humility in the man to die, The apostle does not leave us to con- there must have been a power in the jecture in what this second humiliation man of refusing to die. If, in becoming mainly consisted. He represents it as "obedient unto death," the man "humsubmission to death, even the death bled himself,” there can be no debate of the cross.' So that, aster becom- that his dying was a voluntary act; and ing man, it was humbling himself” to that, had he chosen to decline submisyield to that sentence from which no man sion to the rending asunder of soul and is exempted. It was " humbling him- body, he might have continued to this self," to die at all; it was " humbling day, unworn by disease, unbroken by himself still more, to die ignominiously age, the immortal man, the indestruc
We will examine successively these tible flesh. We can gather nothing from statements, and the conclusions to such form of expression, but that it which they naturally lead.
would have been quite possible for the It was humility in Christ to die at Mediator to have upheld, through long all. Who then was this mysterious man cycles, undecayed his humanity, and to have preserved it stanch and unbroken, the virgin-mother of our Lord. He supwhilst generation after generation rose, poses her to have been immaculate, and flourished, and fell. He in whom it and free from original corruption. The was humility to die, must have been Protestant, on the contrary, withholdone who could have resisted, through ing not from Mary due honor and esa succession of ages, the approaches teem, classes her, in every sense, of death, and thus have still trodden amongst the daughters of man, and beour earth, the child of centuries past, lieves that, whatever her superior lovethe heir of centuries to come. liness of character, she had her full
We plead for it as a most simple and share of the pollution of our nature. necessary deduction, and we deny alto-Now it may consist well enough with gether that it is a harsh and overstrain-the Papist's theory, but it is wholly at ed inference, from the fact that the man variance with the Protestant's, to supChrist Jesus humbled himself in dying, pose that the man Jesus, made of the that the man was more than man, and substance of his mother, had a humathat a nature, higher than human, yea, nity, like that of Adam, free from infireven divine, belonged to his person. mity, as well as from sinful propensity. We can advance no other account of And we can never bring up the humasuch an act of humility. If you were nity of Christ into exact sameness with even to say that the second Adam was, the humanity of Adam, without either in every respect, just such a man as the overthrowing the fundamental article first, ere evil entered, and, with it, ob- of faith, that the Redeemer was the noxiousness to death, you would intro- seed of the woman, or ascribing to his duce greater difficulties than the one mother such preternatural purity as to be removed. You may say that if, makes her own birth as mysterious as for the sake of winning some advantage her son's. to his posterity, Adam, whilst yet un- We would pause, for a moment, in fallen, and therefore, without" the sen- our argument, and speak on the point tence of death,” 2 Cor. 1: 2, in his mem- of the Savior's humanity. We are told bers, had consented to die, he would, that Christ's humanity was in every strictly speaking, have humbled him- respect the same as our own humanity; self in dying; and that consequent- fallen, therefore, as ours is fallen. But ly Christ, supposing him sinless like Christ, as not being one of the natural Adam, and therefore, under no necessi- descendants of Adam, was not included ty of death, might have displayed hu- in the covenant made with, and violamility in consenting to die, and yet not ted by, our common father. Hence his thereby have proved himself divine as humanity was the solitary exception, well as human. We are not disposed the only humanity which became not to controvert the statement. So far as fallen humanity as a consequence on we can judge—though we have some apostacy. If a man be a fallen man, he jealousy of allowing that a mere crea. must have fallen in Adam ; in other ture can humble bimself in executing words, he must be one of those whom God's work-it may be true, that, had Adam federally represented. But Christ, the man Christ Jesus been, in every re- as being emphatically the seed of the spect, similar to the unfallen Adam, woman, was not thus federally reprethere might have been humility in his sented ; and therefore Christ fell not, dying, and yet no divinity in his person. as we fell, in Adam. He had not been
But then we strenuously set our- a party to the broken covenant, and thus selves against such a false and perni- could not be a sharer in the guilty concious view of the Savior's humanity. sequences of the infraction. We will admit that a Papist, but we But, nevertheless, while we argue deny that a Protestant can, without that Christ was not what is termed a doing utter violence to his creed, main- fallen man, we contend that, since tain that in every respect Christ re "made of a woman,” Galatians, 4 : 4, sembled the unfallen Adam. The Pa- he was as truly "man, of the substance pist entertains extravagant notions of of his mother,' as any one amongst
• Athanasian Creed.