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to delivery. Let the whole arm move, and let the movement be free and flowing
Thirdly ;-As a general rule, let the hand be open, with the fingers slightly curved. It then seems liberal, communicative, and candid; and, in some degree, gives that expression to the style of delivery. Of course, there are passages which require the clinched liand, the pointed finger, &c.; but these are used to give a particular expression.
Fourthly ;-In the movements of the arm, study variety and the grace of curved lines.
When a gesture is made with one arm only, the eye should be cast in the direction of that arm; not at it, but over it.
All speakers employ, more or less, the motions of the head. In reference to that member, we make but one observation. Avoid the continuous bobbing and shaking of the head, which is so conspicuous in the action of many ambitious public speakers.
The beauty and force of all gesture consists in the timely, judicious, and natural employment of it, when it can serve to illustrato the meaning, or give emphasis to the force of an important passage. The usual fault of young speakers is too much action. To emphiasize all parts alike, is equivalent to no emphasis; and by employing forcible gestures on unimportant passages, we diminish our power to render other parts impressive.
With these general remarks, we leave the subject to the good sense and the good taste of the intelligent teacher.
QUESTIONS. - What is the first general direction with regard to ges. ture? What attitude is the most favorable for free motion ? What gross faults are mentioned ? What two objects are to be observed with regard to the movements? With what should every gesture be in harmony ? How can what is called a graceful manner be best obtained ? What is the first direction with regard to the use of the arms ? What is the second ? What is the third ? What is the fourth? What remark with regard to the motion of the head? In what does the beauty and force of all gesture consist? What is the usual fault of young speakers ?
TO TEACHERS. In the Second PART, some lessons are given with a rhetorical notation, and such remarks are added, as are deemed appropriate.
In ARTICULATION, as the exercises are already extensive, a few lessons only are added, especially adapted to the purpose of practice. Let it be remembered, that every word, in every lesson, is au exercise in articulation. It is only by constant practice in this fundamental element of elocution, that an easy, correct, and distinct enunciation can be attained and preserved.
In the lessons upon INFLECTION, a few simple principles are first stated, and illustrated by lessons, and to these are added new ones at the head of each division, until, at last, an epitome of the whole subject is presented. Thus the subject is opened, by degrees, until all its principles are placed before the mind connectedly. This plan of presenting the subject, it is believed, will commend itself to the teacher.
IN EMPHASIS and Poetry, a synopsis is also placed at the head of each division, and the lessons for practice include all the previous notation.
With regard to the lessons on MODULATION, a single remark seems necessary. The tone and manner in which emotion is expressed, are instinctive. A proper expression can be given, only by imbibing the spirit of the subject. In the notation, high and low tones are specifically indicated. Loudness is sufficiently denoted, in most cases, by emphasis.
À considerable number of lessons are added at the close of the Second Part, exhibiting all the principles connectedly. Occasionally, a lesson is without notation, that the pupil may learn to apply the principles as he progresses, and, in the Third Part, he is left wholly to his own judgment and the aid of his teacher.
The following characters are used in the Second Part. THE RISING INFLECTION IS DENOTED BY
(1) THE FALLING INFLECTION
(1) THE RISING CIRCUMFLEX THE FALLING CIRCUMFLEX THE MONOTONE, BY A LINE PLACED OVER THE VOWEL . EMPHATIC WORDS ARE DENOTED BY ITALICS OR CAPITALS. THE EMPHATIC PAUSE, BY A LINE BEFORE OR AFTER THE WORD (-) THE CESURA IS DEVOTED BY
(D) THE DEMI-CESURA
(1) A JIGH TONE
(h ) A HIGHER TONE
(hh) A LOW TONE
(1) A STILL LOWER TOWE
LESSONS IN READING, WITH RHLTORICAL NOTATION.
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.
DESCRIPTION OF A STORM.
THEY looked round on every side, and hope gave way before the scene of desolation. Immense branches were shivered from the largest trees; small ones were entirely stripped of their leaves; the long grass was bowed to the earth; the waters were whirled in eddies out of the little rivulets; birds, leaving their nests to seek shelter in the crevices of the rocks, unable to stem the driving air, flapped their wings and fell upon the earth; the frightened animals of the plain, almost suffocated by the impetuosity of the wind, sought safety, and found destruction; some of the largest trees were torn up by the roots; the sluices of the mountains were filled, and innumerable torrents rushed down the before empty gullies. The heavens now open, and the lightning and thunder contend with the horrors of the wind.
2. In a moment, all was again hushed. Dead silence succeeded the bellow of the thunder, the roar of the wind, the rush of the waters, the moaning of the beasts, the screaming of the birds ! Nothing was heard save the plash of the agitated lake, as it beat up against the black rocks which girt it in.
3. Again, greater darkness enveloped the trembling earth. Anon, the heavens were rent with lightning, which nothing could have quenched but the descending deluge. Cataracts poured down from the lowering firmament. For an instant, the horses dashed madly forward; beast and rider blinded and stifled by the gushing rain, and gasping for breath. Shelter was nowhere. The quivering beasts reared, and snorted, and sank upon their knees, dismounting their riders.
4. He had scarcely spoken, when there burst forth a terrific noise, they knew not what; a rush, they could not understand; a vibration which shook them on their horses. Every terror sank before the roar of the cataract. It seemed that the mighty
mountain, unable to support its weight of waters, shook to the foundation. A lake had burst upon its summit, and the cataract became a falling ocean. The source of the great deep appeared to be discharging itself over the range of mountains; the great gray peak tottered on its foundation ! - It shook ! — it fell! and buried in its ruins, the castle, the village, and the bridge!
HYMN TO THE NIGHT-WIND.
1. UNBRIDLED Spirit, throned upon the lap
Of ebon Midnight, whither dost thou stray?
, or car,
The wondering forests as thou sweepest by!
Of tumult, and of discord, and mankind;
To hold nocturnal orgies. 3.
Awfully piercing, bursts; and woman's fears
Commingling sea and sky. 4.
Yields, and the cordage cracks. 5.
Thou churnest the deep
LESSON III. a
THE CATARACT OF LODORE. [This lesson is inserted on account of its very peculiar adaptation for practice on the difficult sound ing.)
How does the water