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ing subsidies from the Senate,45 was lavishly spent at Rome in purchasing the adherence of magistrates or eminent citizens, while for the people he ordered games, largesses, and even the building of a new Forum.47 His liberality was extended to the inhabitants of his provinces, raising those in Cisalpine Gaul to citizenship,48 and others in the more lately conquered country above the reach of at least some evils ensuing upon their submission.49

The splendor, the munificence, and the heroism of Cæsar were the daily admiration of the multitude, as much as his power, his ambition, and his unscrupulous actions were the daily fear of those who clung to their own authority or to the shadowy name of their Commonwealth. But the fear excited him as much as the admiration; and when he came down to Ravenna, a year before the termination of his proconsulship, already extended, as we shall presently notice, from five years to ten, he determined to obtain the consulate, without disbanding his forces or entering the city. His ultimate projects were no longer to be concealed. The number of his followers was fast increasing, partly from the nobility, but chiefly from the populace; 50 while many of the principal persons in his provinces raised his ambitious aims yet higher

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by their dependence and their fealty.51 It was said, in after times, that he often spoke of a civil war as a necessity ; 52 and that, when the Senate first denied a demand he made, he struck the hilt of his sword, exclaiming, “ This will give it me!"53

The rapid exploits and towering designs of Cæsar are partly to be explained by the movements of his adversaries. Departing from Rome, he left the Senate humbled, the triumvirate firm, Clodius devoted, and Cicero prostrate. On returning, though Cicero was still powerless, Clodius was dead, after more outrages than Cæsar could have desired or controlled ; Crassus had fallen in Parthia ; 54 Pompey was changed to an enemy; while nearly the whole Senate, with Cato, next to Pompey, at their head, were earnest against Cæsar to resist and to destroy him. The illwill of the Senate and the resistance of Cato, who had some time before sought the consulship with the avowed purpose of compelling both Pompey and Cæsar to humility,55 were according to the natural course of things as previously related. Pompey, by recurring to his former passion for active authority, especially on the loss of his wife Julia, the strongest

51 Cic., Ad Att., VII. 7. Suet., 55 Dion Cass., XL. 58. He Cæs., 28.

failed in his canvass, because, says 52 Suet., Cæs., 27.

Plutarch, he would not take the 53 App., Bell. Civ., II. 25. The common course to gain over the story is differently told in Plut., multitude. Cat., 49. Cato proCæs., 29 ; Pomp., 51. Cicero writes posed, at an earlier time, that Cæsar of the " terrores Cæsariani.” Ad should be delivered over to the barAtt., VI. 8.

barians, in requital for the cruelties 54 A. C. 53. Plut., Crass., 16 of which he had been guilty towards et seq.

them. Ibid., 51, and Cæs., 22.


link between him and her father, Cæsar, was soon offended by the fame and the power of his younger associate. He had at first been contented with proconsular authority for five years over the markets ; 56 and when Cæsar, two years after his departure for Gaul, came down to Lucca, on the frontier of his province, Pompey went thither, with Crassus and a throng of magistrates and Senators,57 to renew the triumvirate, against which some feeble demonstrations had lately been made at Rome. Cæsar succeeded in having the term of his proconsulship doubled, besides obtaining a grant of money for the payment of his troops, so that his spoils were free for other uses. Pompey, however, was no less satisfied on receiving the provinces of Spain and Africa for five years, which were easily procured, as well as the measures in Cæsar’s favor, in the consulship to which Pompey and Crassus were elected,58 soon after the interview at Lucca, by the votes of Cæsar's numerous partisans. It was subsequently to this consulship and to the following year, when Pompey, engaged in building and opening a magnificent theatre at Rome,59 preferred to leave his provinces to his lieutenants, that his wife died, and that he became restless and suspicious, especially of Cæsar.



56 Liv., Epit. CIV. Plut., Pomp., Consuls in A. C. 55. See preced

ing references, with Dion Cass., 57 Two hundred Senators, with XXXIX. 25-33; Liv., Epit. CV.; one hundred and twenty lictors, says App., Bell. Civ., II. 18. Appian, Bell. Civ., II. 17. So59 Plut., Pomp., 52. Dion Cass., Plut., Cæs., 21 ; Pomp., 51. This XXXIX. 38. Cic., Ad Div., VII. was in the spring of A. C. 56. 1.

58 Pompey and Crassus were

He at once bestirred himself, and in the midst of intrigues and disorders on all sides, he was chosen to the consulship without a colleague,60 as if it had been a dictatorship that he had claimed and obtained. The authority he thus acquired, however, was either less than he demanded, or more than he knew how to turn to his own advantage; for, with the exception of prolonging his command in the provinces and securing a large yearly grant to himself as Proconsul, he merely threw out a few proposals of laws, in order to restrain the ambition of his absent associate, some of which only were carried into effect.61 He married a new wife and admitted her father to share his consulship; 62 he joined a new party, as it then was to him, and received the Senators into his confidence ; 63 and when the public and private connections between him and Cæsar were thus completely sundered, he entered into all the foolish measures which were urged against the authority and the prospects of his former confederate. His brain was more completely turned by the sacrifices offered for his recovery from an illness at Naples and the rejoicings with which he was welcomed on his journey homeward.64 And though it was the very year of Cæsar's coming to Ravenna, determined, as all men saw, to make himself the sovereign of Rome, Pompey still fancied his own position so secure as to accept from the Senate the command of the public forces and revenues, with the assurance, on his part, that he had only to stamp his foot anywhere in Italy to raise an army.65 As it turned out, his adversary was only obliged to stamp his foot in Italy to clear it of Pompey, the Senate, and their whole host.

60 A. C. 52. Plut., Pomp., 54. 63 See Vell. Pat., II. 47; App.,

61 App., Bell. Civ., II. 23; Bell. Civ., II. 25. where (24, 25) the general disturb- 64 Plut., Pomp., 57. It had been ance and the flight of many to Cee- better for him, as Velleius Patersar are described. Dion Cass., XL. culus suggests (II. 48), to have 55, 56. Suet., Cæs., 26.

died. 62 Plut., Pomp., 55.

“I see,” wrote Cicero, just then returned to Italy, but not to Rome, from unhappy service in Cilicia,66 “ I see that our affairs are in great danger, and that we have to deal with a man at once thoroughly audacious and perfectly prepared. ..... The only hope of resistance is in a single citizen. ..... And they are all contending for their own authorities, to the hazard of the laws.” 67 The Commonwealth, indeed, was become too narrow to hold both the colossal forms beneath whose legs the best and the worst of their compatriots were creeping about as underlings.

“It cannot be told," writes Cicero again, on his arrival at Rome, “how low is every thing about us

65 Dion Cass., XL. 64. Plut., Roman hands. He made a little Pomp., 57.

fortune, notwithstanding. Ad Att., 66 He was sent to govern the XI. 1; Ad Div., V. 20. Nor was province against his will, in conse- he content to stay where he was quence of one of Pompey's recent useful, but longed for Rome (Ad laws, which left a number of va- Att., V. 15); his dread having been cant provincial governments. Dion lest his term should be extended. Cass., XL. 56. Cicero was ap- Ibid., 21. pointed A. C. 52, and returned to 67 See the whole letter (even Italy in 50. He did a great deal these sentences being here transof good, and treated the Cilicians posed), Ad Att., VII. 3, and the with moderation and justice, such as other letters near it in the same colthey had never before received at lection.

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