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I wanted neither vices, nor virtues; (Which perhaps is the national failing) Imprudent and improvident, gentle and

very, very few.
benevolent;

I had many enemies,
Often too prone to anger,

But envious, but wicked, but inhuman;
Never implacable.

With those injuries, however,
To luxury as well as avarice

I was never to deeply affected (Which laft I considered not as a vice As with my own tranfgreffions. but as madness)

The extreme old age to which I ats Totally averfe.

tained, Citizens, guests, and foreigners, I neither wished for, nor accufed : I received with the moft open hofpi- Neither bearing the evils of life too tality:

impatiently, Myself temperate in eating, Nor too much delighted with its blesIn drinking moft temperate.

fings. I lived with the high, with the low,

Death I neither defpifed, with all,

Nor feared. That I might know mankind, and

Moft higheft, chiefly myself:

Who cakeft care of this world and the Both which, alas ! I knew not.

affairs of men,
I had very many friends,

Have mercy upon my soul :
Bur true, firm, grateful,

NATURAL

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NATURAL HISTORY

other IT has been justly regretted, that we however, many very

curious know little more of the inland particulars relating to thu fate of parts of Spain, than of the inland the country and its product and cute parts of Africa. Except the Spanish tents, the revenues of the king, the novels, and the ladies travels into character of the ecclesiastics, and Spain, there is scarce a book yet ex- the ce conomy of a pastoral life. tant from which we can form any idea of the manners of the people, Account of the sheep and sheepor the produce or curiosities of the walks of Spain, in a letter from country; some letters lately publish- a gentleman in Spain, to Mr. ed having only disappointed the cu

Peter Collinson, F.R.S. riosity they raised. The following piece, therefore, must be considered

SIR,

HERE are two kinds of to the common stock, as the product sheep in Spain. The coarseof a mine scarce opened before, woolled sheep, who remain all their which abounds with the most valu- lives in their native country, and able and curious materials. It is who are housed every night in greatly to be wished that the inge- winter ; and the fine woolled sheep, nious author would transmit some who are all their lives in the open farther account of a people who are, air, who travel every summer from in many respects, what the rest of the cool mountains of the northern Europe was five centuries ago. They parts of Spain, to feed all the winhave no intercourse with other na- ter on the southern warm plains of tions, either for pleasure or profit; Andaloufia, Manca, and Extrematheir superstition has suffered very dura. From computations made little from the advancement of ge- with the utmost accuracy it has apneral knowledge, and they have pre- peared, that there are five millions served their ancient hal its of life, of fine-woolled sheep in Spain, and which, in other places, have been that the wool end flesh of a stock changed by the improvement of arts, of ten thousand sheep produced and the establishm-nt of manufac- yearly about 24 reals a head, which tories.

we will suppose to be nearly the There are, lesides, in the inte- value of 12 English fixpences; of rior parts of Spain, many curious these but one goes clear a head to remains of Moorish antiquity, ma- the owner yearly, three fixpences a ny traditions of unwritten events, head goes yearly to the king, and many opinions which have been the other eight go to the expences driven from the rest of Europe, and of pasture, tithes, shepherds, dogs, some amusements and employments salt, sheering, &c. known no where else.'

Thus the annual product of the Though the following letter re- five millions of sheep amounts to lates principally to the sheep and 37 millions and a half of fixsheep walks of Spain, it contains, perces, a little more or less, of

a year.

which there is about three millions the whole flock. You may judge and a half for the owners ; above of his importance by his salary ; 15 millions enter into the treafury, he has 40 pounds a year and a and seven millions and a half go to horse, whereas the first shepherd of the benefit of the public. Hence a tribe has but 40 shillings a year, it is the kings of Spain call these the second 34, the third 25, the flocks in their ordinances, the pre- fourth 15, and a boy 10 fhillings cious jewel of the crown.

All their allowance is two Formerly this jewel was really pounds of bread a day each. They set in the crown, a succession of may keep a few goats and sheep in many kings were lords of all the the flock, but the wool is for the flocks : hence that great number master ; they have only the lambs of ordinances, penal laws, privi- and the flesh. The chief fhepleges, and immunities which issued herd gives them three shillings in forth in different reigns for the April, and three in October, hy preservation and special govern- way of regale for the road; and ment of the sheep: hence a royal these are all the sweets these micouncil was formed under the title serable wretches enjoy ; exposed of the council of the grand royal every day in the year to all weaflock, which exifts to this day, thers, and every night to lie in a though the king has not a fingle hut. Thus fare, and thus live, sheep. Various exigencies of state, generally to old age, 25,000 men, in different reigns, alienated by who cloath kings in scarlet, and degrees the whole grand flock bishops in purple ; for that is the from the crown, together with all number computed to keep the fineits privileges, which were collected woolled sheep of Spain, with the and published in the year 1731, fame number of dogs of the large under the title of laws of the royal mastiff kind, who allowed flock; a volume in large folio of two pounds of bread a-piece a above 500 pages.

day. I often faw these flocks in The wars and wants of Philip the summer sheep walks of the hills the First's reign, forced that king to and vales of Leon, Old Castile, sell forty thousand sheep to the mar- Cuenca, and Arrragon. I saw them quis of Iturbieta, which was the last in their winter plains of Manca, flock of the crown.

Extremadura, and Andalousia. I Ten thousand sheep. compose a often met them in their peregrinaflock, which is divided into ten tion from the one to the other. I saw tribes. One man has the conduct and I saw again. One eye is worth of all. He must be the owner of an hundred ears. I enquired, I 4 or 500 sheep, strong, active, vi- observed, and even made experigilant, intelligent in pasture, in ments. All this was done when the weather, and in the diseases happily got acquainted with a good of sheep

He has absolute do- plain old friar, who had a consumminion over 50 shepherds and 50 mate knowledge of all the mechanidogs, five of each to a tribe. He cal, low, minute circumftances and chooses them, he chastises them, or

ceonomy of a flock. He told me discharges them at will; he is that he was the son of a shepherd, the prepofitus or chief shepherd of that he had followed 15 long years

are

the

the tribe of theep his father led, men. He had all these things by that at 25 years of age he begged heart just as he had all the minute an old primer, that at 30 he could circumstances of the sheep he had read, that at 36 he had learned followed, and this letter would have Latin enough to read mass and the 'been imperfect had I not met him. breviary, that he was ordained by The five millions of feep pass Don Juan Navarra, lord bishop of the summer in the cool mounAlbarazzin, who, as it is known, tains and hills above-named. Beeven to a proverb in Spain, has fore we begin their itineraries ordained thousands, declaring these to their winter walks, let us see 40 years in a loud voice, That a how a few flocks live in a couple priest is the most precious boon of cantons, which I will choose, to which a bishop can bestow, in the serve as examples for all the reft., name of God, to mankind, even One is the Montana, the other though he was as unlearned as an Molina Arragon. I select these two apostle. That thus ordained he for these reasons; because I passed entered into the order of St. Fran- two summers in one, and a summer 1 cis, that he had never meddled in in the other. One is the most their affairs these twenty years past, northern part of Spain, and at but only said mass, confessed, in- the greatest distance from the winstructed, and gave an eye to about ter walks ; the other is towards the 500 wethers who grazed in the neigh-east, and the shortest journey the bouring downs for the use of the sheep have to make. One is the convent; that he had read the bible, highest, and the other the lowest the lives of the saints, and the lives summer walk in Spain, and beof the popes, with no other view in cause one is full of aromatic plants the world but to find out all that and the other has none. was said about shepherds ; that good At the extremity of Old Caftile Abel was the first shepherd, that there is a territory called the Monall the patriarchs were shepherds, tana ; it is divided into two parts. that the meek shepherd Moses was The low mountain is that chain of chosen to deliver the people of mountains which bounds the CanGod out of bondage ; that Saul, tabrian sea. The city of Santanin seeking his father's flock found der is its chief port, from whence a kingdom; that David went out you ascend foutherly, twelve long from his flock to play the Philistine leagues, a succession of high craggiant : that 14,000 sheep was the gy mountains, to the town of Reychief reward Job received for his nosa in the Upper Montana, which invincible patience ; that Isidro, ascent reaches three leagues more, the protecting faint of Madrid, and then you always descend about was not, as is vulgarly believed, 14 leagues to the city of Burgos, an hulbandman, like wicked Cain, capital of Old Castile. Reynosa is but that he was really a keeper of in the center of an open plain, surtheep: that the great Pope Sixtus rounded by a ridge of high mounQuintus was verily and truly a tains, at whose feet are low hills of shepherd, and not a swine herd; pasture land. The fource of the that, for his part, he had forsaken great river Ebro is an hour's walk his sheep to become a shepherd of to the west of Reynosa. All the

spring

spring rain, and snow waters of the gooseberry' bushes. The high mountains to the north of Reyno- mountains abound with oak, birch, fa, run into the bay of Biscay. holly, and hazel. The waters of the southern chain - The hills and plains are fine are collected in the river Pisuerga, pasture ; I never saw a meadow in which running into the river any other part of Spain, nor cows Duero are carried into the Atlantic nor horses feed on hay. These ocean at Oporto, and all the water mountains are formed of fandthat falls into the plains of Rey- stone, lime - stone, plaister - stone, nosa, runs with the Ebro into the (talc) and emery-stone. The fandMediterranean, seven leagues below stone is at the summit of the mounthe city of Tortosa. Hence we see tains and hills in fome, and the that the adjacent parts of Reynosa lime-stone forms the body. You divide the waters of three seas, see the contrary in others, but the which lie north, east, and west. fand-stone abounds, and the plaisEight leagues square of this Upper ter is always the lowest. As for Montana is the highest land of example, the high mountain of Spain ; the mountains rise in the Arandilla, which is about a small atmosphere to the line of congela- league north of the town, is all tion. I see snow from my window fand-stone at the summit; its body this fourth of August that I am is a mass of afh-coloured lime-stone, writing this. Some years ago, in which you find imprisoned petrithere used to fall so much snow, fied cornua ammonis and scollopthat the people were forced to dig shells, and heds of plaister-stone at lanes through the snow to go to its foot towards the plain, which church in winter ; but there ha join to strata of black marble veinfailen little fnow since the Lisbon ed with white and yellow, which carthquake, and some years none is no more than a purer

lime-stone, at all. It certainly changed the like all other marble, and you find climates of many parts of Spain. great blocks of emery-stone in the No man living faw, nor heard his plain and on the hill to the east of father say he faw, snow fall in or Reynosa, of which I will say a word, about Seville, till the year 1756, because I think its nature is not which extraordinary appearance truly known, at least that of emery, ftruck a dread into some convents; which the looking-glass grinders of they rung the bells to prayers, the king's fabric at St. Ildefonso and made processions to appease the say is the most biting emery they wrath of heaven, as if the falling ever used, and I never saw any flakes foreboded the last day. I other in its native matrix. That found many plants only beginning iron has been, and is now, in a to flower here, which I saw in feed fluid state, percolating through the below at Santander. I remember earth, and that it subsides, cryfto have seen in Switzerland all the talises, or is precipitated to form plants but two, which grow in the different bodies, is demonstrated by mountains, hills, and plains of the black and red bloodstone (heReynosa, a small yellow flowered matites) by some beautiful ftalacgenistella with an herbaceous, tri- tites, which are almost pure iron; angular, jointed stem, and wild by the eagle-stone; by figured

Pyrites;

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