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ordered every ship of war in the Sutton's machine may be applied service of that state to be furnish with great advantages to other pur. ed with one of them; a model poses; and the late ingenious Mr. also of this machine was sent into Benjamin Robins, F. R. S. who France, and all the ships in the was the best military mathematiFrench navy were also ordered cian of his time, gave his testimoto have a ventilator of the fame ny in favour of the superiority of fort.

Sutton's contrivance. It happened also that about the The public, however, is not less same time, one Sutton, who kept a indebted to the ingenuity and becoffee-house in Alderfgate-street, nevolence of Dr. Hales, whose invented a ventilator of ano- ventilators came more easily into ther conftruction, to draw off the use for many purposes of the greatfoul air out of ships, by means est importance to life, particuof the cook-room fire; but poorlarly for keeping corn sweet, by Sutton had not interest enough blowing through it fresh showers to make mankind accept the be- of air, a practice very soon adopt. nefit he offered them: he was, ed by France, a large granary however, at length, introduced having been made under the to Dr. Mead, who soon perceiv- direction of M. Duhamel, for the ing that it was greatly preferable preservation of corn in this manto any other method for sea fer- ner, with a view to make it a gevice, drew up and presented a neral practice. memorial to the Royal Society, In the year 1743, Dr. Hales read in which the simplicity and excel- before the Royal Society a descriplence of it was demonstrated ; he tion of a method of conveying also caused a model of it to be liquors into the abdomen during made in copper at the expence of the operation of tapping, and it 2001. which he presented to the was afterwards printed in their society, and which is now in their Transactions. museum. After ten years foli- - In 1745 he published fome ex. citation, supported by the influ-periments and observations on tarence of Dr. Mead, Sutton obtain. water, which he had been induced ed an order to construct his ma- to make by the publication of a chine on board his majesty's ships work called Siris, in which the of war, and his contrivance to pre- late learned and most excellent Dr. ferve his fellow creatures from Berkley, bishop of Cloyne, had pestilential diseases was rewarded recommended tar-water as an uniby a permission to put it in prac-versal medicine : on this occa. tice; an instance of attention to fion several letters passed between the public, and liberality to merit, them on the subject, particularly which must reflect everlasting ho- with respect to the use of tar-wanour upon the great names who ter in the disease of the horned at that time presided over the cattle. affairs of this kingdom. M. Du- In the same year he communihamel, a celebrated mathematician cated to the public, by a letter to of France, and surveyor-general of the editor of the Gentleman's Man the French marine, has thewn how gazine, a description of a back


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heaver, which will winnow and ing small paffable ftones foon, and
clean corn much fooner and better with ease, out of the bladder; and
than can be done by the common this was also printed in their
method. He also, at the same time, Transactions.
and by the same channel, commu. In the Gent. Mag. for July, 1747,
nicated to the public a cheap and he published an account of a very
easy way to preserve corn sweet in considerable improvement of his
facks, an invention of great bene- back heaver, by which it became
fit to farmers, especially to poor capable of clearing corn of the
leasers, who want to keep small very small grain, feeds, blacks,
quantities of corn for some time,' fmut-balls, &c. to fuch perfection
but have no proper granary or

as to make it fit for seed corn.
repository for that purpose. He On the 21st of April, 1748, he
also the same year took the fame communicated to the Royal Society
method to publish directions how a proposal for checking, in fome
to keep corn sweet in heaps with degree, the progrefs of fires, occa-
out turning it, and to sweeten itfioned by the great fire which hap-
when musty. He published a long pened that year in Cornhill. And
paper, containing an account of the fubftance of this propofal was
feveral methods to preserve corn printed in their Transactions.
by ventilators, with a particular In the fame year he also commu-
description of several sorts of ven- nicated to the society two me-
tilators, illustrated by a cut, so moirs, which are printed in their
that the whole mechanism of them Transactions, one on the great be-
may be eafily known, and the nefit of ventilators, and the other
machine constructed by a on some experiments in electri-
mon carpenter. He published also city.
in the same volume, but with- In the year 1749, his ventilators
out his name, a detection of the were fixed in the Savoy prison,
fallacious boasts concerning the by order of the right honourable
efficacy of the liquid fhell in dif- Henry Fox, efq; then secretary at
solving the stone in the bladder : war, and now lord Holland ; and
in the urine of persons who had the benefit was so great, that thos
taken the liquid fhell, there ap-. 50 or 100 in a year often died of
peared a white sediment, which the gaol distemper before, yet
the dispenser of the noftrum pre- from the year 1949, to the year
tended to be the diffolved stone ; 1752, inclusive, no more than 4
but Dr. Hales demonstrated that persons died, though in the year
it was 'no other than the lime 1750 the number of prisoners was
of the burnt shell, which he pre- 240 ; and of those 4, one died of
cipitated with fpirit of hartshorn the small-pox, and another of in-
without a stone, and which he also temperance,
precipitated by putting a stone In the year 1750, he published
into some of the liquid fhell, some considerations on the causes
though the ftone suffered not the of earthquakes, occafioned by the
least alteration.

flight shocks felt that year in In 1746 he communicated to the London. The fubftance of this Royal Society a proposal for bring, work was also printed in the



Phil. Trans. The same year he from foul air, exemplified by a exhibited an examination of the narrative of several persons seized ftrength of several purging waters, with the gaol fever by working in especially of the water of Jessop's Newgate. well, which is printed in the Phil. On the death of Sir Hans Truns.

Sloane, which happened in the He had now been several years year 1753, he was elected a memhonoured with the esteem and ber of the Academy of Sciences at friendship of his royal highness Paris in his room. Frederick prince of Wales, who The same year he published in frequently visited him at Tedding- the Gent. Mag. some farther conton, from his neighbouring palace fiderations about means to draw the at Kew, and took a pleasure in sur- foul air out of the fick rooms of ocprising him in the midst of those casional army hospitals, and pricurious researches into the various vate houses in towns. parts of nature which almost in- He also published many other cessantly employed him. Upon the curious particulars relative to the prince's death, which happened use and success of ventilators. this year,

and the settlement of the The same year a description of houshold of the princess dowager, a sea gage, which the doctor inhe was, without his solicitation or vented to measure unfathomable even knowledge, appointed clerk of depths, was communicated to the the closet, or almoner to her royal public in the fame miscellany : this highness.

paper was drawn up about the In 1751, he was chosen by the year 1732 or 33, by the doctor, College of Physicians to preach the for the late Colin Campbell, esq; annual fermon called Crowne's who employed the ingenious Mr. lecture : Dr. William Crowne Hawksby to make the machine it having left a legacy for a sermon describes, which was tried in vato be annually preached on the rious depths, and answered with wisdom and goodness of God, dis- great exactness ; yet was at last played in the formation of man. lost near Bermuda. Dr. Hales's text was, With the an- On the 19th of Dec. 1754, he cient is wisdom, and in length of communicated to the Royal Sodays understanding; Job xii. 12. ciety fome experiments for keepThis sermon, as usual, was publish- ing water and fish sweet with lime ed at the request of the college. water, an account of which was

In the latter end of the year published in the Phil. Trans. He 1752, his ventilators, worked by also continued to enrich their mea windmill, were fixed in New- moirs with many useful articles gate, with branching trunks to from this time till his death, par24 wards ; and it appeared that ticularly a method of forwarding

. the disproportion of those that the distillation of fresh from fält died in the gaol before and after water by blowing showers of fresh this establishment was at 7 to 16, air up through the latter during the He published also a farther account operation. of their success, and some obser- In 1757, he communicated to vations on the great danger arising the editor of the Gent, Mag. an


edlý method of purifying the air, neficial to others, as appears by and regulating its heat in melon this account of his attainments frames, and hot green-houses, also and pursuits; the constant ferefarther improvements in his me- nity and cheerfulness of his mind, thod of distilling fea-water. and the temperance and regularity

His reputation and the interest of his life, concurred, with a good of his family and friends might constitution, to preserve him in easily have procured him farther health and vigour, to the uncompreferment : but of farther pre- mon age of fourscore and four ferment he was not desirous ; for

years. being nominated by his late ma- He died at Teddington, on the jesty to a canonry of Windsor, he 4th of January, 1761, and was engaged the princess to request his buried, pursuant to his own dimajesty to recal his nomination. rections, under the tower of the That a man fo devoted to philo- parish church which he built at fophical studies and employments, his own expence not long before and fo conscientious in the dif- his death. charge of his duty, should not de- Her royal highness the princess fire any preferment, which would of Wales erected a monument to reduce him to the dilemma either his memory in Westminster Abbey, of neglecting his duty, or forego with this inscription : ing his amusement, is not strange ;

STEPHANO HALES but that he would refuse an ho

S. T.P. nourable and profitable appoint

Augusta GEORGII tertii ment, for which ño duty was to Regis optimi Mater P. be done that would interrupt his Quæ viventum habits of life, can scarce be im- Ut sibi in sacris ministraret, eligit; puted to his temperance and hu- Mortuum prid.non.Jan. M.DCC.LXI. mility without impeaching his be- Octogesimum quartum agentem nevolence; for if he had no will of any thing more for himself, a Hoc Marmore ornavit. liberal mind would surely have been highly gratified by the distribution of so considerable a sum as a cànonry of Windsor would have put into his power, in the Memoirs of. Sir Godfrey Kneller :reward of industry, the allevia- From Mr. Walpole's anecdotes of tion of distress, and the support painting of helpless indigence. however, remarkable for social VIR Godfrey Kneller was lefvirtue and sweetness of temper ;

sened by his own reputation, his life was not only blameless, as he chose to make it fubferbut exemplary in a high degree; vient to his fortune *. Had he he was happy in himself, and be lived in a country where his merit

The author of the Abregé fays, that Kneller preferred portrait painting for this reason : “ Painters of history, said he, make the dead live, and do not begin to live themselves till they are dead..I paint the living, and they make me live." VOL. VII.



annum .

He was,

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had been rewarded according to sketch of it at Houghtons struck the worth of his productions, in- out with a spirit and fireequal to stead of the number, he might Rubens. The hero and the horse have shone in the roll of the are in the heat of battle : in the greatest masters; but he united large piece, it is the king riding the highest vanity with the most in triumph, with his usual phlegm. consummate negligence of cha- Of all his works, Sir Godfrey racter at least, where he offered was most proud of the convert. one picture to fame, he sacrificed ed Chinese at Windsor ; but his twenty to lucre; and he met with portrait of Gibbons is superior customers of so little judgment, to it : it has the freedom and nathat they were fond of being ture of Vandyck, with the harpainted by a man who would mony of colouring peculiar to Angladly have disowned his works drea Sacchi ; and no part of it is the moment they were paid for. neglected. In general, even where Tent fovereigns fat to him; not he took pains, all the parts are one of them discovered that he effectually kept down, to throw was fit for more than preserving the greater force into the head their likeness. We, however, who ma trick unworthy so great a masfee king William, the czar Peter, ter. His draperies too are so careMarlborough, Newton, Dryden, lessly finished, that they resemble Godolphin, Somers, the duchess no filk or stuff the world ever of Grafton, lady Ranelagh, and saw. His airs of heads have exfo

many ornaments of an illustrious treme grace ; the hair admirably age, transmitted to us by. Kneller's disposed, and if the locks seem pencil; must not regret that his unnaturally elevated, it must be talent was confined to portraits. considered as an instance of the Perhaps the treasure is greater painter's art. He painted in an than if he had decorated the cham- age when the women erected edibers of Hampton-court with the fices of three stories on their heads. wars of Æneas, or the enchanted Had he represented such prepoftepalace of Armida : and wlien one rous attire, in half a century his considers how feldom great masters works would have been ridiculous. are worthily employed, it is bet. To lower their dress to a natural ter to have real portraits, than level, when the eye was accusMadonas without end. My opi. tomed to pyramids, would have nion of what Sir Godfrey's genius shocked their prejudices and dicould have produced, must not minished the ` resemblance. He be judged by the historic pi&ure took a middle way, and weighed of king William in the palace out ornament to them of more just mentioned ; it is a tame and natural materials. Still, it must poor performance, but the original bo owned, there is too great a

* Charles II. James II. and his Queen ; William and Mary, Anne, George I. Louis XIV. Peter the Great, and the emperor Charles VI. For the laft pererait, Leopold created Kneller knight of the Roman empire; by Anne he was made gentleman of the privy chamber; and by the university of Oxford, a doctor.


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