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ease in Camchatca, causing the In pains of the back, they rub death of numbers. The palsy, the part affected before the fire, cancer, and French disease, are with a root of the cicuta, being supposed to be incurable ; the last, careful not to touch the loins, they say, was not heard of before which they say would produce the arrival of the Ruffians. There spasms. In pains of the joints, is likewise another distemper which they place upon the part of a little they call fulhutch, which is a fort pyramid, made of a fungus, which of scab that surrounds the whole grows upon the birch trees, and body under the ribs like a girdle. set the top of it on fire, letting it When this does not come to sup- burn until it comes to the skin, purate and fall off, it is mortal; which then cracks, and leaves a and they say, every one must have wound behind, that yields a great this once in his life-time, as we quantity of matter. The wound have the small-pox.

they cure with the ashes of the funWhen they are bit by a dog, or gus, but some give themselves no wolf, they lay the bruised leaves trouble at all about it. The root of the ulmaria upon the wound, of the anemonides, or ranunculus, 'drinking at the same time a decoc- they use to hurt or poison their enetion of them ; this decoction they mies ; and they likewise poison also administer in the belly-ach their arrows with it. and scurvy. The leaves and stalks bruised they use in burns. The

Of their burials. decoction of this herb mixed with fish they use also in the tooth-ach ; Instead of burnings or laying the they hold it warm in their mouths, dead bodies in some hole, the Camand lay a piece of the root upon chatcans bind a strap-round the the affected tooth. They use a neck of the corpse, draw it out, and species of gentian in the scurvy, and leave it near the hut, to be devoured almost against every disorder. by their dogs ; for which they give

In the jaundice, they have a me. the following reason : that those dicine, which they look upon as who are eaten by dogs, will drive infallible. They take the roots of with fine dogs in the other world ; the iris sylvestris, and after clean- and say, that they leave them near ing them, beat them. in warm water, the hut, that the evil spirits, whom and use the juice, which they squeeze they imagine to be the occasion of out, as a clyster, continuing it for their death, seeing the dead body, two days; two or three times a day. may be satisfied with the mischief This produces a purging, and ge- they have done. However, they nerally gives great relief. After frequently remove to some other some time, if the cure is not com- place, when any one has died in pleted, they repeat it again. They the hut, leaving the corple behind neither use lancets nor cupping- them in it. glasses, but with a pair of wooden They throw away all the cloaths pincers draw up the skin, and of the deceased, not because they

an instrument of imagine they shall have occasion chrystal made on purpose, letting for them in the other world, but Qut as much blood as they want. because they believe that whoever

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wears' the cloaths of one that is An account of the inhabitants of St. dead, will certainly come to an Kilda, and of the island itself ; untimely end. This superstition extracted from the history of that prevails particularly among the island, lately published by the Kuriles of the Lopatka, who Rev. Mr. Kenneth Macaulay. would not touch any thing which they thought had belonged to THE island of St. Kilda may

personalthough they be ranked greatshould have the greatest inclina- eft curiosities of the British em. tion for it.

pire. The situation of the place, After the burial of the dead, the genius of its inhabitants, their they use the following purifica- manners and customs, the contion ; going to the wood, they stitution of their little commoncut some rods, of which they make wealth, that amazing dexterity a ring; and, creeping through it with which they manage the moit twice, they carry it to the wood, important branches of their busi

and throw it towards the west. ness, that unexampled courage, • Those who dragged out the body with which they encounter dan.

are obliged to catch two birds, gers insurmountable to any other of one fort or other ; one of which

and that perthey burn, and eat the other with haps happy ignorance, which renthe whole family. The purifi- ders them absolute strangers to cation is performed on the same those extravagant desires and endday; for, before this, they dare less pursuits, which keep the great not enter any other, hut, nor will and active world in a constant any body else enter their’s. h agitation : all these, and some commemoration of the dead, the other extraordinary circumstances, whole family dine upon a fish, the taken together at one view, seem fins of which they burn in the fire. highly to merit the attention of

Such was in general the state of the inquisitive. And yet all the these people, when the Russians territories, belonging to the comfirst came among them ; but now, monwealth of St. Kilda, are no by the care of the empress Eliza- more than three small islands and beth, missionaries are appointed five naked rocks. The principal to civilize them, and teach them island, together with the rest, lies the Christian faith. In 1741, a in the ocean, of old called the clergyman was sent by the synod, Deucaledonian: its latitude I take with aslistants, and every thing ne- to be about 58 degrees and 30 cessary for this purpose, and for minutes. The length of the whole building a church, which has been ifland is at least three English attended with such success, . that miles, from east to west ; and its many of them are baptised, and all breadth from south to north, not very readily send their children to less than two. the schools opened in many places The ground of St. Kilda, like for their instruction ; so that, in a much the greatest part of that over few years, we may hope to see the all the Highlands, is much betChristian faith planted in all these ter calculated for pasture than northern countries.

tillage...Restrained by idleness


a fault


a fault or vice much more par- the south-east, must in the sumdonable here than in any other mer time be quite intense ; and part of Great Britain, or dif- however rainy the climate is, the couraged by the form of govern- corn must, for these reasons, grow ment under which they live, the very fast, and, ripen early. I people of this island study to rear saw the barley of this island about up sheep, and to kill wild-fowl, the beginning of June, and obmuch more than to engage deeply served that it was higher in the in the more toilfome business of stalk than any I had ever seen husbandry.

elsewhere at that season. All the ground hitherto culti- The harvest is commonly over vated in this

island, lies round the at this place before the beginning village. The foil is thin, full of of September; and should it fall gravel, and of consequence very out otherwise, the whole crop sharp. This, though naturally would be almost destroyed by the poor, is however rendered ex- equinoctial storms.-All the islandtremely fertile, by the fingular in- on the western coast, have dustry of very judicious husband- great reason to dread the fury men: these prepare and manure of autumnal tempests: these, toevery inch of their ground, so as gether with the excessive quanto convert it into a kind of gar- tities of rain they have generalden. All the instruments of agri- ly, throughout seven or eight culture they use, or indeed re- months of the year, are undoubt quire, according to their fyftem, edly the most disadvantageous and are a spade, a mall, and a raké unhappy circumstances of their or harrow. After turning up the lives. The St. Kildians have ground with a spade, they rake more than an equal portion of this or harrow it very carefully, re- fore evil. moving every small stone, every Barley and oats are the only noxious root, or growing weed sorts of grain known at St. Kilda ; that falls in their way: and pound nor does it seem calculated for down every stiff clod, into dult. any other. Fifty bolls of the for

It is certain, that a small num- mer, old Highland measure, are ber of acres well-prepared in St. every year brought from there to Kilda, in this manner, will yield Harris ; and all the western islands more profit to the husbandman hardly produce any thing so good than a much greater number when of the kind. Potatoes have been roughly handled in a hurry, as introduced among that people onis the case in the other western ly of late, and hitherto they illes. The people of St. Kilda have raised but small quantities sow and reap very early, I mean of them. earlier than any of their neigh- The only appearance of a garbours on the western coast of den in this whole land, so the Scotland. The soil, I have al- natives call their principal island ready remarked, is naturally sharp, in their own language, is no more and not spungy. The heat of the than a very inconsiderable piece of fun, reflected from the hills and ground, which is inclosed, and rocks into a low valley facing planted with some cabbages.


On the east-side of the island, at narrow and low to answer that the distance of a quarter of a mile purpose. from the bay, lies the village, All their dwelling houses are where the whole body of this divided into two apartments by little people (the number of adult partition walls. In the division males amounting to no more than next the door, which is much the twenty-two) live together, like largest, they have their cattle stallo the inhabitants of a town or city. ed during the whole winter season ; Their houses are built in two the other serves for kitchen, hall, rows, regular and facing one ano- and bed-room. ther, with a tolerable causeway in It will be readily expected that the middle, which they call the a race of men and women, bred street.

in St. Kilda, must be a very

slovenThese habitations are made and ly generation, and every way incontrived in a very uncommon elegant. I confess it is impoffible

Every one of them is to defend them from this imputaflat in the roof, or nearly so, much tion. Their method of preparing like the houses of some oriental a fort of manure, to them indeed nations. That from any one of of vast use, proves that they are these the St. Kildians have bor- very indelicate. Towed their manner of building, After having burnt a considerno man of sense will entertain a able quantity of dried turf, they suspicion. They have been taught spread the ashes with the nicest this lesson by their own reason, im- care over the floor of that apartproved by experience.

ment, in which they eat and sleep. The place in which their lot These ashes, so exactly laid out, has fallen, is peculiarly subject they cover with a rich friable to violent squalls and furious hur- sort of earth : over this bed of ricanes ; were their houses raised earth they scatter a proportionhigher than at present, they be able heap of that duft into which lieve the first winter storm would peats are apt to crumble away: bring them down about their this done, they water, tread, and ears.--For this reason the pre- beat the whole compoft into a caution they take in giving them hard floor, on which they imroofs much flatter than ordinary, mediately make new fires very seems to be not altogether unne- large, and never extinguished till cessary.

they have a sufficient stock of The walls of these habitations new ashes on hand. The same are made of a rough gritty kind operations are repeated with a of stones, huddled up together in never failing punctuality, till they hafte, without either lime or mor- are just ready to sow their barley ; tar, from eight to nine feef high. by that time the walls of their

In the heart of the walls are the houses are funk down, or to speak beds, which are overlaidd with

more properly, the floors risen flags, and large enough to con- about four or five feet. tain three persons. In the side To have room enough for acof every bed is an opening, by cumulating heaps of this com. way of door, whieh is much too post one above another; the ancient


St. Kildians had ingenuity enough any the smallest help of timber. to contrive their beds within the These cells are from twelve to linings of their walls, and it was eighteen feet in length, and a for the same reason they took care little more than seven in height. to raise these walls to an height Their breadth at the foundation, far from being common in the is nearly equal to the height. other western islands.

Every stone hangs above that imThe manure produced in this mediately below, not perpendicuway must undoubtedly be good, larly, but inclines forward, so as though probably rather sharp than to be nearer the opposite side of of long duration, as it is scat- the grotto ; and thus by impertered in small quantities upon the ceptible degrees, till the two highsurface of the ground ; so that est courses are near enough to be the fiery and saline particles of covered by a single flag at the it must foon evaporate. Be that as top. To hinder the rain from it will, those who practise this art falling down between the inare abundantly lavilh in its praises. terstices above, the upper part They call it a commodity in- of the building is overlaid with estimably precious ; and one may turf, which looks like a fine greenventure to affirm, that a genuine sward, while new. St. Kildian would scruple to bar- The inhabitants secure their ter it away for all the diamonds in peats, eggs, and wild-fowl, withBrasil and Golconda.

in these finall repositories : every It is certain, that cleanliness St. Kildian has his share of them, must contribute greatly to health, in proportion to the extent of and of course longevity; but in land he possesses, or the rent he spite of that instance of indelicacy paye to the steward. From the now given, and many more which construction of these cells, and the might have been added, I have toil they must have cost before not been able to find, that the they could have been finished, it people of this island are more seems plain that those who put short-lived than other

them together, were, if not more Their total want of those articles ingenious than their neighbours of luxury, which have so natural in the adjacent islands, at least a tendency to destroy the constitu- more industrious than their own tion of the human body, and their successors. moderate exercises, will, together The St. Kilda method of catchwith some other circumstances, ing wild-fowl, is very entertainkeep the balance of life equal ing. The men are divided into enough between them and those fowling parties, each of which who are absolute strangers to flow consists generally of four persons venlinefs.

distinguished by their agility and Besides the dwelling-houses al. fkill. Each party must have at ready described, there are a pro- least one rope about thirty fadigious number of little cells, thoms long : this rope is made dispersed over all the island ; which out of a strong raw cow hide, confist entirely of stones, without falted for that very purpose, and



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