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sea voyages.

fome better pen.

hance of exceeding small particles, of water, containing about ninety which being diffused through the gallons. minute interstices between the par- The following morning the waticles of water, adhere, by their ter would be as clear as any spring clamminess, to every animal or ve- water, and as sweet. getable substance they meet with, Unflacked lime has likewise the and carry them to the bottom. quality of sweetening casks, by just There the animal and vegetable putting some of it in cold water particles, the only putrescent ones, into the caík, stopping it close, and are so far separated from one and- then rolling it about till no more ther, by the intervening clay, that noise is heard. they no where come in contact in I shall say no more, but refer sufficient quantity to bring on a you to Alston's Dissertations on regular putrefaction, but rather Quick Lime, and its great use in dissolve into an uniform substance with the clay.

I had always good success in I shall not enter here into the both white and black from morgreat naval purposes to which this tality, a great deal of which I atdiscovery may be applied, leaving tributed to the lime in water ; and that to the author himself, or to after using it a little while, the

flaves would not drink the water without lime was in it.

Once a sailor, now a farmer, Easy method of sweetening putrid Water, with a hint for remedy, there is mentioned a ventilator by

P.S. In Dr. Mead's works, ing some inconveniences attending fire-ventilators.

fire from the furnace, which being

tried on board his majesty's fhips, Have been captain of a Guiney- complaint was made of the fire

man several voyages ; on which going down with the pipe. occasions I always took a half bar- This might be easily remedied rel of unslacked lime with me, to by forming it into the furnace with be ready to use to sweeten the a fwan's neck. ship's water.

I am sure it would be of the On the slaves being turned down utmoft service on board a Guineyin an evening, we always got our

man, as our furgace is fixed at the water up, in a cask we have on barricade at the main hatchway. purpose, abaft our barricade, first From the pipe that leads to the straining the water off out of the well there should be two branches cask, being the sediment of what of about a foot of two long, to was left that day to put into the which the leather ouses (pipes of boiler (which was of iron, as I the same nature with the leather never used a copper) for the next pipes used in fire-engines) should day's slaves provision ; then we be fcrewed ; and at every fathom filled our cask out of the hold, the distance there should be wooden water often being thick, and stink- nolles, as they then might make ing very much; to remedy which the ouses longer or shorter, to be we always put three or four meat conveyed to what part of the ship {poonfuls of the lime to a punchion they pleased.

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General

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General rules to preserve the Translation of a letter from the

health of soldiers and sailors in Avoyer, or chief magistrate, at hot climates : by the late Dr. Berne, in Switzerland, to Hales.

relative to the magazines for

corn and wine there. VIRST, let all our soldiers who have a mind to preserve SIR,

U ask me for an account

all ex- of the provisions both for cess in rum, or other spirituous li- corn and wine which are fubfiftquors.

Whatever they drink of ing in the canton of Berne, and spirits must be a long time distilled, if it is true that we owe the estaand reduced to an innocent sherbet, blishment of them to the patriotic by mixing in it five parts in fix of zeal of a citizen of this republic, water. This may be done by the who, dying without children, care of their officers.

left his riches for that purpose : Secondly, let them, as much as in regard to which, I have the possible, avoid the heavy evening honour to acquaint you, that you dews, or wetting their feet at have been misinformed as to the night, which last generally pro- nature of the foundation of our duces fatal fore throats : if by acci- magazines ; and give me. leave to dent they wet their feet, the surest add, by the way, that it is not in remedy is, as quickly as they can this little republic, as in great after, to wet their whole body. states. At Berne private men

Thirdly, let them, where they have very slender fortunes : on have opportunity, plunge every the contrary, the state, by a course morning into the salt water. In of disinterestedness and prudent the inland parts, where this oppor- economy in those who govern, tunity is not at hand, let each fol- may pass for rich, since the rights dier every morning throw into his of the royalties only, with the bason an ounce of salt ; and after rents of the estates, or lordships, it is diffolved in the water, dip in- of which they are possessed, both to the bason a coarse towel, and by purchase and conqueft, put

it wet his head, his limbs, and all his in their power, and even without body over with this salt water, raising any fort of tax or excise on and immediately after put on his the people, to lay up almost every cloaths without drying his skin : year fome saving in the treafury; bay salt is the best, if it may be from thence it arises that the gohad. This wonderfully strengthens vernment is always both willing and braces all the muscular fibres, and able to relieve the wants of its and covers the skin with a kind citizens and subjects, and there. of saltish cruft, which prevents fore such foundation's would, in all feverish infections. This whole this country, be works of fupereprocess may be executed in three rogation. minutes, and effectually embalms The magistrates of Berne ever and preserves the body from danger flatter themselves that it is more for that day.

honourable for them to adminifter

the

corn.

the revenues of the republic in such its fupply, and always below the a manner, that none but itself market price. should be in a capacity to relieve As to the magazines of the fethe people, than it would be, if cond fort, they are called the proby augmenting the salaries of their vision, and were established in purofficers, which they are well able suance of a convention called the to do, they should become, after dissentional, which the whole Helthe example of many great states, vetic body hath entered into for rich citizens in a poor · republic. the common defence of Switzerland But it is time to finish this long in case of an attack from a foreign digreffion, and to apply myself to enemy. This treaty, regulating fatisfy, Sir, your curiosity : I the number of troops and artillery will begin by laying before you which each canton is bound to furthe nature of the magazines for nish, obliges them, at the same

time, to have always ready, and The people of Berne have two in store, provision and ammuniforts, one subject to great variations, tion in proportion to their continthe other always the same.

gent.

There are of these magaThere are of the first fort many zines of provision, as well at Berne in the capital, and in many other as in all the castles where the parts of the canton, which are fill- bailiffs reside : they are never either ed, more or less, according as the diminished or increased, only care abundance of the harvest, and is talen to keep them always in goodness of the grain, furnish an 'good order, and to substitute good opportunity ; for, besides the fixed

corn in the place of that which derevenue which the state hath in

cays. A bailiff, who should diffee-farm rents, it hath a great apply this provision, would be dequantity of tithes, which are of a posed: and from time to time the very casual, and very different deputies of Berne, without giving produce. When there are several notice of their intention, visit these fruitful

years in succession, the magazines, and cause the corn to granaries of this fort in the capital be measured over. Although there become full ; but in other parts, if is fix times more corn in these mathere is an appearance, towards gazines than the contingent, which Faker, of a good harvest, the corn Berne furnishes by the diffentional, is fold which is in the castles of requires, they have never taken the different bailiwicks, after hav- out, in times of peace, more than ing paid the several salaries to one fourth part in an exceeding which they are made liable ; and scarcity; and they have had great the bailiffs, who have a certain care to refill them without delay. revenue made good to them, ac- This is, Sir, in abridgment, an count for the furplus to the cham- account of the magazines for the ber of economy at Berne. The provision of corn in the canton of magazines of this capital, on the Berne. Several short crops withcontrary, are never opened, and in fifteen years having caused the sold but in dear times; and then common people to suffer by the care is taken not to sell to any fa- high price which they were obligmily more than is sufficient for ed to give for their bread, and the

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con

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corn which the goverment caused this commodity, both of which are
to be purchased in Burgundy and inconveniences, in their conse.
Suabia, and resold to a great loss, quences hurtful enough to deserve
having given but little relief to the the care of a sovereign to prevent,
misery of the poor, there is at who hath nothing more at heart
present a project under considera- than to procure, as much as can
tion at Berne, which, if it is brought depend on his care and foresight,
to pass, will, in all probability, the happiness of the people which
prevent the subjects of this state Providence hath fubmitted to his
from paying very dear for their government.
bread for the time to come ;

which As to wine, the state of Berne is this : it is proposed to build, having a great quantity of wine, in those parts of the canton which as tithes and quit-rents, in the are most fruitful in corn, large several vineyards in the canton, had granaries, and at such times when formerly a great deal in itore, both the abundance of the harvest shall at Berne and elsewhere, of which have caused the value of a certain they made use, in short years,

both measure of corn to fall below a to pay the salaries in wine, which certain price, to buy up, on ac

are annexed to a number of emcount of the government, all that ployments, and to supply the poor shall be left for sale in the markets, citizens therewith at a moderate after private persons have done price, observing the fame precaubuying, to the end that the owner tion as when they fell corn at a or farmer may be always fure of low price ; but the salaries in wine having a certain price for his corn, have by little and little increased and not be under à necessity of to such a degree, that at this day being at the expence and trouble there is so little left to be laid up, of laying up what he may have left that after two succeeding short in the town-hall, or carrying it years, the state finds itself under a home again, or else selling it at too necessity of paying a great part of low a price to foreigners in the the salaries in money, which were neighbourhood, of whom the sub- appointed to be paid in wines, in jects of Berne are often afterwards order to keep it in their power obliged to buy it again at an exor- supply the tradesmen and other bitant rate. The government, on poor citizens of Berne therewith at the contrary, will sell their corn a low rate. again to their subjects as soon as I hope, Sir, that I have been ever the price shall have risen to a fo successful as to satisfy your cucertain degree ; and by this ma- riosity; and have the honour to nagement they will prevent both be, Šir, the too high, and too low price of

Your humble servant.

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lb, oz.

Ib. oz.

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An Account of the progress of Grain from the Market to the Mouth ; made by an accurate trial near Kettering, and exhibited before four of his majesty's justices of the peace for the county of Northampton, August 3, 1757.

A bushel of itWeight of the Loaves Weight when baked.
Weight Weight | Surplus When When

half made into unbaked.
A Bushel Bought by the by the above ground drefled

dough.
market ftandard the into

into
Bran.
Four twelve."

Four twelve-
measure measure. | standard. meal. Flour.

Ib. oz. peuny loaves, 7 4 penny loaves,
of

Flour 22 8each at

each at

Water 9 11ž Ib. oz. Ib. oz. lb. oz. / Ib. oz. Ib. oz. Ib.

oz. Barm Wheat, Kettering, 8 60

6 Salt Odd weight 4

Odd weight Dough 33

6

9

at

29

0 12 04

0 4

26 3

4 0

61

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12

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Two twelve-
Flour 19 10 penny loaves, >15
Water 11 2 each at
Barm

1 O
8
Salt 0 4

30

Odd weight 2
Dough 32 0

32

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