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he more easily procured, and far- had ascended and vegetated along her experiments made upon it. those pieces of oak-wood (the
wood having served as a preci
pitant) and formed shrubs on them. instance of the regeneration of me- What seems very singular, is, that tals, from the last volume of the all those shrubs have resumed with Mem oirs of the Royal Academy time the metallic form. M. Helof Sciences at Paris.
lot, to whom we are indebted for
this observation, presented to the THE question concerning the Academy a piece of this wood,
regeneration of metals in which had been sent to him from nines, is one of the most impor- Cheisy. The metallic vegetation ant points of natural philosophy. is seen plainly on it, and it is now Some metallurgists are of opinion kept in the cabinet of the king's that they are regenerated; others, garden, as a very curious article of that they are not. In the copper
natural history mine of Cheify, near St. Bel, in How many questions of natural the province of Lyonnois, there is philosophy, on which we are now found a metallic vegetation which divided in opinion, would have
appears greatly in favour of the been solved if our observations were affirmative. ' In this mine is a ca- of a more ancient date! Let us vern or gallery upwards of two therefore endeavour to be more serhundred feet long : it is a work of viceable to posterity than the anthe Romans ; and the pieces of cients have been to us ; and, if we wood that serve to sustain the roof, cannot transmit to them a true pic. are still in a pretty good condition. ture of this world, let us at least, The copper of this mine, proba- if possible, leave behind us the new bly dissolved by some vitriolic acid, cessary materials for forming it.
An account of the Spanish fishery the rest are divided among the crew
Chitherto unnoticed by other na- according to their merit :
in the fishery, half a fhare, or a
quarter, according to his abilities, THE number of vessels em- The patron, or master of the bark, to about 30; they are from 15 to men, and the owners allow him al50 tons burthen ; the smallest carry so one share out of their's for his 5 men, and the largest 30. They trouble in taking care of the bark. are all built in the islands, and The place on the coast of Barnavigated by the natives. Two of bary where they go to fish, is accordthese belong to the island of Palma, ing to the season of the year. This four to Teneriffe, and the rest to fishery is bounded on the north by Canaria. Porto de Luz in that the southern extremity of Mount island; is the place from whence Atlas, or by the latitude of 29 dethey fail for the coast.
and on the south by The method of fitting out a bark Cape Blanco, in the latitude of 20 for the fishery is this ; the owners degrees 30 minutes north : the furnish a vessel for the voyage, and whole length of the sea-coast fo put on board her a quantity of salt bounded is about 600 miles. In fufficient to cure the fish, with all this extensive tract there is no bread enough to serve the crew for town, village, or settled habitathe whole voyage. Each man car
tion ; the few wandering Arabs ries his own filhing tackle, which who frequent this part of the world consists of a few lines, hooks, a live in tents, and have neither little brass-wire, a knife for cut- 'nats, barks, nor canoes : the ting open the fish, and one or two king of Morocco's cruizers never stout tifhing-rods. If any of the venture so far to the southward ; crew carry wine, brandy, oil, vi- for were they to attempt such a negar, pepper, onions, &c. it must thing, it is not probable they would be at his own expence, for the be able to find the way back to their owners furnish no provision but own country, so that the Canaribread. The net sum arising from ans have nothing to fear from that the sale of the fish, after deducting quarter. In the spring season, the the expence of the salt and bread fishermen go to the coast to the before mentioned, is divided into northward, but in the autumn and shares, a certain number of which winter to the southward ; because are allowed to the owners for their in the spring the fish frequent the expence in fitting out the vessel ; coasts to the northward, and after
wards go gradually along the shore serves as well as the tafsarte for bait. to the southward.
There is another fort of bait call: The first thing the fishermen set ed cavallos, or little horse macabout when they arrive on the karel, but something more flat coast, is to catch bait; this is done and broad, it is about a span long, in the fame manner as we do trouts and is catched with an angling rod with a fly, only with this differ- and line with a very small hook, ence, that the rod is thrice as baited with almost any thing that thick as ours, and not tapered comes to hand. When a bark has away so much towards the point. got a sufficient stock of bait, the The line is made of six small brass leaves her boat, with five or fix wires, twisted together : the hook men, near the shore, to catch tasis about five inches long, and is farte and anhoua, and runs out to not bearded ; the shaft is leaded sea a good distance off, until she so as it may lie horizontally on gets into fifteen, twenty, thirty, the surface of the water ; and the forty, or perhaps fifty or fixty fahook is covered with a fifh's skin, thoms depth of water, where the except from where it bends, to anchors, and all the crew heave the point ; then getting within a their lines and hooks overboard, quarter or half a mile of the shore, baited with tassarte, anhoua, &c. they carry so much fail as to cause and fish for famas, or bream as we the bark to run at the rate of four call them, and for cherney, or cod. miles an hour, when two or three The lines are all leaded, in order men throw their lines over the to cause the hooks to fink near to stern, and let the hooks drag along the bottom of the sea, where these the surface of the water ; the fish, fish swim. When a bark is so for taking the hooks for small fish, tunate as to meet with fine weasnap at them, and, when hooked, ther, and is well provided with the fishermen swing them into the bait, she will be able to complete barks with their rods. The Ca- her cargo in four days. This I narians call these fish tafsarte : they have often had opportunity to obhave no scales, and are shaped like ferve. But as the trade or northmackarel, but as large as falmon; east wind commonly blows fresh they are exceeding voracious, and on that coast, the barks only anfwallow all the hook, notwith- chor in the offing about mid-day, ftanding its being so large. If it when there is a lull between the was bearded, there could be no land and sea breeze ; and when fuch thing as extracting it without this last-mentioned wind begins to cutting open the fish. I have seen blow fresh, they weigh their anthree men in the stern of a bark chors, stand in to shore, and come catch an hundred and fifty tafsarte to an anchor in some bay, or under in half an hour. It sometimes a head-land, and then the crew fall happens that a bark will complete to work, clean and falt the fifli her lading in these fish only. *An- which they catched that day. By other sort of fish, which these peo- the time this is done, it is about ple call anhoua, is taken in the five or six o'clock in the evening, fame manner ; this is something when they go to dinner or supper, bigger than a large mackarel, and for they make but one meal the
whole day, which they cook in much better at their own doors ; the following manner. In every I say better, for the weather here, bark the crew has a long flat stone and every thing else, concurs to for a hearth, upon which they make it the best fishery in the unikindle a fire, and hang a large ket- verse. What can be a stronger proof
a tle over it, in which they boil fome of this than the Moors on the confilh ; they then take a platter, and tinent drying and curing all their put some broken biscuit in it, with fish without salt, or by any other onions shred small; to this they process than exposing them to the add fome pepper and vinegar, and sun beams ? For the pure wholethen pour in the broth of the fish : fome air of that climate, and the no sort of soup or broth is more strong northerly wind which almoft delicious than this. After having constantly prevails on this coast, eaten of this excellent foup, they totally prevents putrefaction, profinish their meal with roasted fish, vided the fish are split open, well for they throw the boiled fish, of washed, and exposed to the sun which the soup was made, into the until they are perfectly dry. fea. Soon after this repast, every As these vessels feldom go to fish man looks about for the most com- on any part of the coast of Barbamodious place where to fall asleep, ry, to the windward of the islands, for no bedding are made use of in and are obliged to ply against the these vessels. About five or fix in fresh northerly winds which almost the morning they get up, leave the continually prevail there, they are boat near the shore, weigh anchor constructed in such a manner that and stand out to fea as before, and they hold a good wind, as it is never taste victuals before the same termed in the sea-language, being time next evening. No man who very sharp fore and aft, and full knows the toil, fatigue, cold, and and flat in the middle. They are heat which these fishermen under- rigged brigantines, and carry a go, will ever charge the Spaniards large flying fore-top fail, but in with laziness.
general no main-top-fail, nor stayThe method of curing these fish fails; they all carry large spritis this : they cut them open, clean fails, but no jibs. I have known and wash them thoroughly, chop these barks to beat to windward off their heads and fins, and pile from Cape Blanco to Grand Canathem up to drain off the water ; ria in twelve days, though the dis. after which they are falted, and tance is above four hundred miles, ftowed in bulk in the hold. But Their method of plying to windbecause they do not, like the ward is this : they weigh about French who fish on the banks of fix or seven o'clock in the mornNewfoundland, wash their fish a ing and fand off to sea, with the second time and re-falt them, they land-wind, until noon, when they will not keep above fix weeks or put about, and stand in shore, two months.
with the sea-breeze ; when they It is strange to think that the come close in with it, they either Spaniards should want to share anchor for the night, or make the Newfoundland fishery with the short tacks until day-light, when English, when they have one they stond out to sea, till noon;
as before. The difference between they privately correspond with the land and sea-breezes on this them, to their mutual advantage; coast is generally four points, and for the Canarians give to the inhathey both blow a fresh top-fail gale. bitants of the Desart, old ropes, When they get ten or fifteen leagues which the latter untwist and spin to the windward of Cape Bazador, into yarn or twine for making fishthey stand over for the island of ing-nets; they also give them Grand Canaria ; if the wind hap- bread, onions, potatoes, and fruits pens then to beat north-east, they of many kinds : in return for fetch the port of Gando, on the which the Moors allow them to south-east part of that island ; but take wood and water on their coast, if the wind is at north-north-eąst, whenever they are in want of these they only fetch the calms, into moft necessary articles, and make which they pulb, and there soon them presents of ostrich eggs and find a south-west wind to carry them feathers. The inland Moors would close to Canaria, from whence punish their poor countrymen, the greater part of them go to who live on fish by the sea-coast, if Santa Cruz, and Port Orotava, they knew of their correspondence to discharge their cargoes; the rest with the Canarian fishermen : but go to Palmas in Canaria, and to this does not prevent that interSanta Cruz, in the island of Palma. course, as neceffity obliges these They do not stop at these places to people, so different from one fell the fish, but leave them with other, to conform to the laws of their agents, to sell them at leisure nature, however contrary to the and to the best advantage. The precepts of both their religions. common price is three halfpence But this profitable communication per pound, of thirty-two ounces, has lately been interrupted, as I which is the weight here used for shall have occasion to observe in flesh and fish ; sometimes they are the description of that part of fold for a penny, and never higher Africa. than two-pence. The regidores or These barks generally make eight cavildo, in the islands, always re- or nine voyages in the space of a gulate the price.
year. From the middle of February Instead of encouraging this most to the middle of April they remain useful and profitable branch, the at Canaria to careen, repair, &c. magistrates in these islands take because at that season of the year every method to hurt it ; for they the fish are found only to the northmost impolitically fix a price on ward, where the shore lies almoft the fish, and clog the trade with south-west-by-west, or west-southfoolish and unreasonable duties, be- west, consequently open and exfides forbidding the fishermen to posed to the north-west winds, which have any dealing or intercourse sometimes blow there in February, with the Moors on the coast where March, and April, and make that they go to fish; which is a very part of the coait to be what we cali great hardship on them, as they à lee-fhore. are often obliged, when they meet When I first frequented the coast with bad weather, to go ashore of the Desart, the Canary meni there for fuel and water. However went no farther to the southwar