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galeopses, as the above-mentioned tity of water which many others author obferves, are the natural require. It is observable, however, growth of black earth, and die in that land as well as aquatic vegefand, whilst the ornithopus flou- tables, may be raised and support rished in sand and perishes in a ed for a length of time by placing black mould.
the little roots, washed clean from Under air may be included the the earth, in water alone.' It vicissitudes of solar light diffused seems as if water and air, or the throughout the atmosphere ; which contents of waters, and of the atlight seems to affect vegetables mosphere were universally the independently of heat, and in a immediate matter which affords manner hitherto inexplicable. All aliment to vegetables ; as if the plants grow weak and slender in
earth served only as a' matrix for the confined air of hot-houses, vegetables to keep them firm, and and much more fo if the solar light to preserve moisture about the is excluded. Plants, whose flowers roots; as if the difference of soils are naturally the most odoriferous, consisted wholly in their being if raised in a perfectly dark place, more or less soft or compact, so as with all the advantages of warmth, to be easily or difficultly penetrated moisture, &c. either do not flower by the tender roots, and in their at all, or bring forth flowers which more or less readily imbibing and have hardly any smell. The jef- effectually retaining water. Thus fainine-tree, whilst it covers the clay absorbs water very slowly and out-side of a wall with its fra- difficultly, its particles expanding grant flowers, is not observed to in proportion as they are moistenproduce a single one upon such ed, so as to prevent the further branches as have forced their way progress of the liquor : if water be within, even into a warm, an airy, poured into a cavity made in a and a light room. High hills, in lump of dry clay, great part of it different parts of the world, the evaporates without being soaked Lapland crags, the Alps, Olympus, in." Chalk, on the other hand, and Ararat, bring forth fimilar very quickly imbibes water, transplants, many of which are never mits it to every part of the mass, met with in lower grounds. These and does not easily let it go plants grow extremely quick, na- whilst fand suffers it to percolate ture making amends for their instantaneously through the intera shortness of summer by a continual stices of the grains, without imagitation and renewal of air : they bibing any into its substance. are small, but loaded wlth innu- With regard to heat, the plants merable feeds. Removed into of the torrid zone require, accordgardens, they grow more slowly to ing to Linnæus, between the a larger size, but abort or produce fiftieth and fixtieth degree of
Fahrenheit's thermometer; those River, stagnant, spring, and sea- of the temperately warm, as the waters, and watery and dry soils, southern parts of Europe, the have each their peculiar plants : Cape, Japan, China, between the succulent plants rot from the quan- thirtieth and fortieth; those of the • Vol. VII.
temperately cold, not above thir- afterwards kept watered abundantty-eight. These seem to be nearly ly: it now flowered and perfected the mean degrees of heat of the its fruit ; and by the same managerespective climates. The plants of ment, another musa was made to cold climates will not bear the heat flower the next year. of warm ones, any more than those He observes, that we can easily. of the warm can support the cold: imitate nature in regard to earth, some of the Cape plants in the heat water, and the degree of heat; of the torrid zone, grew at first and wishes he could equally imi. amazingly, but soon after they lost tate her in the renewals and agitheir leaves, and were with diffi- tations of the air. This also it is culty kept alive. In this, how- in the power of art to effect. The ever, there is a considerable lati- principle that warm air ascends tude : plants may be raised in a above cold, affords means of obclimate not their own, provided taining constant changes and sucthe difference is not very great ; by sessions of air, wherever there is degrees, they become as it were na- warmth and cold. turalized to it ; if once they have Dr. Hales has applied this prinproduced seeds, these seeds are ciple to the improvement of commuch less apt to miscarry, and mon hot-beds. If an aperture is produce hardier plants than such as made in the top of one end of the are brought immediately from their frame, and at the bottom of the native country.
Tobacco, from other, and a descending pipe insertseeds of our own growth, ripens a ed into this last, a stream of fresh month sooner than such as is raised air will pass continually over the from foreign seeds.
surface of the bed. This air may be It was by following nature, that warmed before its admission, by the ingenious botanist above men- carrying the pipe that conveys it tioned has been so successful in through the hot dung. bringing up the vast variety of What is here effected by the plants that have fallen under his heat of dung may be done in hotcare. The rubus caule unifloro fo- houses by that of fire. A pipe, liis terratis was some time ago, he heated by the fire, and reaching to tells us, thought incapable of be- à considerable height in the house, ing raised about Stockholm, till will occasion a continual circulaattention to its natural climate tion of the air in the houfe, that taught to keep it covered with which is warmed in the pipe afsnow during the winter, and great cending, whilst the colder air at part of the spring. Musa, the the bottom comes in to supply most specious plant in nature, had its place, and receiving warmth stood near an hundred years in the from the tube, ascends in like Dutch botanic garden, and could manner, and this uninterruptedly not be made to blow : on consider- whilst the heat continues. If the ing that its native cou ntry Suri- lower part of the pipe is made to nam, where the weather is dry for communicate with the external one half year, and rainy the next, air, it will bring in fresh. If the it was kept long without water, and fire.place opens immediately, or by
à pipe, into the house, the colder island of Hierro; wherein the foun. part of the air at the bottom will tain tree grows. One of these fourpass off through the fire, for fire re. tains is called Acof, which, in the , quires a large quantity of air for its language of the ancient inhabisupport, whilst fresh air is brought tants, fignifies river ; a name, how- .' in and warmed by the other pipe. ever, which does not seem to have
Stronger and more sudden agi- been given it on account of its tations of air, sufficient to raise a yielding much water, for in that moderate wind among the plants, respect it hardly deserves the name may be obtained occasionally by of a fountain. More to the northmechanic impulse. I have made ward is another called Hapio ; and the outer and inner doors of the in the middle of the island is a room, with a proper cavity be- spring, yielding a stream about tween, serve for a ventilator, the the thickness of a man's finger. check which bounds the cavity on
This last was discovered in the one side being made of a circular year 1565, and is called the founcurvature, that the inner door, in tain of Anton Hernandez. On acits motion backwards and for- count of the scarcity of water, the wards, may fit close to it all the sheep, goats, and swine here do not way. The inner door is furnished drink in the summer, but are taught with a valve at bottom, which on to dig up the roots of fern, and pulling the door backwards, re- chew them to quench their thirst. ceives a part of the air of the house The great cattle are watered at into the cavity, and with another those fountains, and at a place at the top, by which, on pushing where water distils from the leaves the door forwards, the air is forced of a tree. Many writers have made out again with strength sufficient to mention of this famous tree, some give a considerable shake to almost in such a manner as to make it apall the plants in a large hot-house. pear miraculous : others again deny The outer door is also furnished the existence of any such tree, with valves, through which by a among whom is father Feyjoo, a few reciprocations of the inner modern Spanish author, in his Thedoor, the external air is plentifully atro Critico. But he, and those pumped in, or the internal air who agree with him in this matter, driven out, all the valves being are as much mistaken as they who made to open occasionally, out- would make it appear to be mirawards or inwards, and secured on culous. This is the only island of either side with buttons.
all the Canaries which I have not
been in: but I have failed with The existence of the Fountain tree natives of Hierro, who, when
in the Canary islands ascertain- questioned about the existence of ed, and its effects accounted for. this tree, answered in the affirma. From Glass's history of these tive. islands.
The author of the history of the
discovery and conquest has given WHERE are only three foun- us a particular account of it, which tains of water in the whole I shall here relate at large.
“ The district in which this tree and interweaves with them: and stands, is called Tigulahe, near to at a small distance from the Garse which and in the cliff, or steep are some beech trees, bresos, and rocky ascent that surrounds the thorns. On the north side of the whole island, is a narrow gutter trunk are two large tanks or cisor gulley, which commences at the terns, of rough stone, or rather one sea, and continues to the summit cistern divided, each half being of the cliff, where it joins or coin- twenty feet square, and fixteen cides with a valley, which is ter- spans in depth. One of these conminated by the steep front of a tains water for the drinking of the rock. On the top of this rock inhabitants, and the other that grows a tree called in the language which they use for their cattle, of the ancient inhabitants, Garle, washing, and fuch-like purposes. Sacred or Holy Tree, which for Every morning, near this part of many years has been preserved the island, a cloud, or mift arises found, entire, and fresh. Its leaves from the sea, which the south and constantly distil such a quantity of easterly winds force against the water as is sufficient to furnish fore-mentioned steep cliff ; fo that drink to every living creature in the cloud having no vent but by Hierro ; nature having provided the gutter, gradually ascends it, this remedy for the drought of the and from thence advances slowly illand. It is situated about a league to the extremity of the valley, and a half from the sea. Nobody where it is stopped and checked by knows of what species it is, only the front of the rock which termithat it is called Til. It is distinct nates the valley, and then rests upfrom other trees, and stands by on the thick leaves and wide
itself; the circumference of the spreading branches of the tree, : trunk is about twelve spans, the from whence it distils in drops
diameter four, and in height from during the remainder of the day, the ground to the top of the highest until it is at length exhausted, in branch, forty spans : the circum- the same manner that we fee water ference of all the branches together drip from the leaves of trees, after is one hundred and twenty feet. a heavy shower of rain. This difThe branches are thick and extend tillation is not peculiar to the 'ed; the lowest commence about Garse, or Til, for the bresos, which the height of an ell from the grow near it, likewise drop water ; ground. Its fruit resembles the but their leaves being but few and acorn, and tastes something like narrow, the quantity is fo trifling, the kernel of a pine-apple, but is that though the natives fave fome softer and more aromatic, The of it, yet they make little or no leaves of this tree resemble those account of any but what distils of the laurel, but are larger, wider, from the Til, which, together and more curved ; they come with the water of some fountains, forth in a perpetual fucceffion, fo and what is saved in the winter that the tree always remains green. season, is sufficient to serve them Near to it grows a thorn which and their flocks. This tree yields faftens on many of its branches most water in those years when the
Levant, or easterly winds have pre- be somewhat surprized, as well vailed for a continuance'; for by knowing there had no rain fallen these winds only the clouds or for near fix months past, accordmists are drawn hither from the ing to the certain course of the sea. A person lives on the spot season in that latitude ; that it was near which this tree grows, who impossible to be occasioned by the is appointed by the council to take fall of dew on the tree, we were care of it and its water, and is al- convinced, by the sun's having lowed a house to live in, with a power to exhale away all moisture certain salary. He
of that nature a few minutes after distributes to each family of the its rising. At last, to our great district seven pots or veliels full of amazement as well as joy, we saw water, besides what he gives to the water dropping, or as it were principal people of the island.”
distilling, fast from the end of Whether the tree which yields every leaf of this wonderful (nor water at this present time, be the had it been amiss if I had faid same as that mentioned in the miraculous) tree; at least it was above description, I cannot pretend so with respect to us, who had to determine ; but it is probable been labouring four days through there has been a succession of them ; extreme heat, without receiving for Pliny, describing the Fortunate the least moisture, and were now island, says, “ In the mountains of almost expiring for the want of Ombrion are trees resembling the it. plant Ferula, from which water We could not help looking on may be procured by pressure. What this as liquor sent from heaven to comes from the black kind is bit- comfort us under great extremity. ter, but that which the white yields We catched what we could of it is sweet and potable.
in our hands, and drank very Trees yielding water are not plentifully, of it, and liked it to peculiar to the island of Hierro, well, that we could hardly prefor travellers inform us of one of vail with ourselves to give over.) the same kind on the istand of St. A matter of this nature could not Thomas, in the bight or gulph of but excite us to make the strictest Guiney. In Cockburn's voyages observations concerning it, and acwe find the following account of a cordingly we staid under the tree dropping tree, near the mountains near three hours, and found we of Vera Paz, in America.
could not fathom its body in “ On the morning of the fourth five times. We observed the soil day we came out on a large plain, where it grew to be very ftony ; where were great numbers of fine and upon the nicest enquiry, we deer, and in the middle stood a could ' afterwards make, both of tree of unusual fize, spreading its the natives of the country and the branches over a vast compass of Spanish inhabitants, we could not ground. Curiosity led us up to learn there was any such tree it; we had perceived, at fome known throughout New Spain, distance off, the ground about it nor perhaps all America over ; but to be wet, at which we began to I do not relate this as a prodigy