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This you may
upon its back,
tinique ; and in its nympha ftate, tion is believed to be the nym.
taken in King Road, near BrisThe tettigometra is among the tol. In a letter from Mr. James cicadæ in the British Museum ; the Ferguson to Thomas Birch, D. D. clavaria is just now known.
Secretary to the Royal Society. be assured is the From the Philosophical Transfact, and all the fact ; though the actions for 1763. untaught inhabitants suppose a fly to vegetate ; and though there
Bristol, May 5, 1763. a of the THE length of the fish is four plant's growing into a trifoliate feet nine inches, and its tree ; and it has been figured with thickness where greatest, or in the the creature flying with this tree middle, about 15 inches. The
mouth is a foot in width, and of a So wild are the imaginations of fquarish form : it has three rows of man ! So chaste and uniform is tharp small teeth, very irregularly nature !"
fet, and at some distance from each Commissioner Rogers, at Dr. other : it has no tongue nor narrow Huxham's desire, has presented this gullet, but is all the way down, as extraordinary production to the far as one can fee, like a great holRoyal Society, and it now lies below tube : in the back of the mouth
within, there are two openings like! A careful examination of it nostrils ; and about nine inches beseems to confirm to me at least low the jaw, and under these
openDr. Hill's opinion of the manner ings, are two large knobs, from of this phænomenon's being pro- which proceed several short teeth ; duced.
a little below which, on the breast The ingenious Mr. Edwards fide, is another knob with such has taken notice of this extraordi- teeth. On each side within, and nary production in his Gleanings about a foot below the jaws, there of Natural History, and has given are three cross ribs somewhat reus a figure of it in that elegant sembling the streight bars of a chimwork.
ney grate, about an inch distant There is in the British Museum, from each other ; through which among the cicadæ, one nearly re- we see into a great cavity within the sembling the animal part of the skin, towards the breast'; and under production before you ; but it the skin, these cavities are kept difcame from the East Indies. There tended by longitudinal ribs, plain to is likewise, from the West Indies, the touch on the outside. I put my in its perfect or winged ftate, the arm down through the mouth quite of which this produce to my thoulder, but could feel
nothing in the way; so that its in which particular vegetables are heart, stomach, and bowels must spontaneously produced, we shall lie in a very little compass near its immediately discover a fure and tail, the body thereabout being successful method of cultivating
them by art. Linnæus justly ob. From the neck proceed two serves, in a curious paper upon this long horns, hard and very elastic, subject, in the first volume of the not jointed by rings as in lobsters; Swedish Acts, that the directions and on each side of the back there given in many books of gardening are two considerable sharp-edged are founded merely on random pracrisings of a black and long sub- tice ; it being from wild plants alone stance. Between each eye and that a rational method of culture the breast there is a cavity some- 'can be deduced. He adds, that all what like the inside of a human plants grow somewhere wild, and ear, but it doth not penetrate to that the business of art is to imitate the inside. From each shoulder their natural climate, or the joint proceeds a strong muscular fin, concurrence of earth, air, water, close by. which, towards the breast, and heat. is an opening, through which one The earths, or soils in which vemay thrust his hand and arm quite getables grow are far from beup through the mouth ; "and" be- ing such simple bodies as most tween these fins proceed from the people, apprehend. They are breast two short paws, fomewhat compounded of all the kinds of like the fore half of a human font, mineral earths, together with that with five toes joined together, into which animal and vegetable having the appearance of nails. substances hemselves are resolved Near the tail, are two large fins, by putrefaction, and blended toone on the back, the other under gether in various proportions. the belly. The skin is of a dark They may, however, be commobrown colour, but darker spotted diously ranged, in regard to the in several places, and entirely with present enquiry, into four classes, out scales.
according to the particular ingredients which prevails in the composition : clayey, chalky, fan
dy, including those which abound Nature the best mistress in Hus- either with fand itself, or with bandry.
such other earthy or stony pac
ticles, as do not in the least Hoever applies himself to imbibe, or are affected by water ;
the study of plants will be and black vegetable and animal foon agreeably surprised with the mold. Each of these foils procapacious field it opens for enquiry, duces plants peculiar to itself
, where the human mind may range and which degenerate or perish in at large, and every day make fresh others. It is on fandy hills that discoveries equally useful and en- the fir and other refinous trees tertaining. If, for inftance, we at- attain to their vigour, and shed tentively consider the circumstances the turpentines and balfams: the
galeopses, as the above-mentioned tity of water which many others author obferves, are the natural require. It is observable, however, growth of black earth, and die in that land as well as aquatic vegefand, whilst the ornithopus flou- tables, may be raised and support rished in sand and perishes in a ed for a length of time by placing black mould.
the little roots, washed clean from Under air may be included the the earth, in water alone. It vicissitudes of solar light diffused seems as if water and air, or the throughout the atmosphere ; which contents of waters, and of the at. light seems to affect vegetables mosphere were universally the independently of heat, and in a immediate matter which affords manner hitherto inexplicable. All aliment to vegetables; as if the plants grow weak and slender in earth served only as a' matrix for the confined air of hot-houses, vegetables to keep them firm, and and much more so if the solar light to preserve moisture about the is excluded. Plants, whose flowers roots; as if the difference of soils are naturally the most odoriferous, consisted wholly in their being if raised in a perfectly dark place, more or less soft or compact, so as with all the advantages of warmth, to be easily or difficultly penetrated moisture, &c. either do not flower by the tender roots, and in their at all, or bring forth flowers which more or less readily imbibing and have hardly any smell. The jef- effectually retaining water. Thus fainine-tree, whilst it covers the clay absorbs water very slowly and out-side of a wall with its fra- difficultly, its particles expanding grant flowers, is not observed to in proportion as they are moistenproduce a single one upon such ed, so as to prevent the further branches as have forced their way progress of the liquor : if water be within, even into a warm, an airy, poured into a cavity made in a and a light room. High hills, in lump of dry clay, great part of it different parts of the world, the evaporates without being soaked Lapland crags, the Alps, Olympus, in." Chalk, on the other hand, and Ararat, bring forth fimilar very quickly imbibes water, transplants, many of which are never mits it to every part of the mass, met with in lower grounds. These and does not easily let it go ; plants grow extremely quick, na. whilst fand suffers it to percolate ture making amends for their instantaneously through the intershortness of summer by a continual stices of the grains, without imagitation and renewal of air: they bibing any into its substance. are small, but loaded wlth innu- With regard to heat, the plants merable feeds. Removed into of the torrid zone require, accordgardens, they grow more slowly to ing to Linnæus, between the a larger size, but abort or produce fiftieth and fixtieth degree of
Fahrenheit's thermometer; those River, stagnant, spring, and sea- of the temperately warm, as the waters, and watery and dry foils, southern parts of Europe, the have each their peculiar plants : Cape, Japan, China, between the succulent plants rot from the quan- thirtieth and fortieth; those of the · Vol. VII.
temperately cold, not above thir- afterwards kept watered abundantty-eight. These seem to be nearly ly: it now flowered and perfected the mean degrees of heat of the its fruit ; and by the same managerespective climates. The plants of ment, another 'musa was made to cold climates will not bear the heat flower the next year. of warm ones, any more than those He observes, that we can easily. of the warm can support the cold: imitate nature in regard to earth, some of the Cape plants in the heat water, and the degree of heat; of the torrid zone, grew at first and wishes he could equally imiamazingly, but soon after they loft tate her in the renewals and agi. their leaves, and were with diffi- tations of the air. This also it is culty kept alive. In this, how- in the power of art to effect. The ever, there is a considerable lati- principle that warm air ascends tude : plants may be raised in a above cold, affords means of obclimate not their own, provided taining constant changes and sucthe difference is not very great ; by sessions of air, wherever there is degrees, they become as it were na- warmth and cold. turalized to it; if once they have Dr. Hales has applied this prinproduced feeds, these seeds are ciple to the improvement of commuch less apt to miscarry, and mon hot-beds. If an aperture is produce hardier plants than such as made in the top of f one end of the are brought immediately from their frame, and at the bottom of the native country. Tobacco; from other, and a descending pipe insertseeds of our own growth, ripens a ed into this last, a stream of fresh month sooner than such as is raised air will pass continually over the from foreign seeds.
surface of the bed. This air
may be It was by following nature, that warmed before its admission, by the ingenious botanist above men- carrying the pipe that conveys tioned has been so successful in through the hot dung. bringing up the vast variety of What is here effected by the plants that have fallen under his heat of dung may be done in hotcare. The rubus caule unifloro fo- houses by that of fire. A pipe, liis terņatis was some time ago, be heated by the fire, and reaching to tells us, thought incapable of be- à considerable height in the house, ing raised about Stockholm, till will occasion a continual circulaattention to its natural climate tion of the air in the houfe, that taught to keep it covered with which is warmed in the pipe assnow during the winter, and great cending, whilst the colder air at part of the spring. Mula, the the bottom comes in to supply most specious plant in nature, had its place, and receiving warmth stood near an hundred years in the from the tube, ascends in like Dutch botanic garden, and could manner, and this uninterruptedly not be made to blow : on consider- whilst the heat continues. If the ing that its native country Suri- lower part of the pipe is made to nam, where the weather is dry for communicate with the external one half year, and rainy the next, air, it will bring in fresh. If the it was kept long without water, and fire place opens immediately, or by
ä pipe, into the house, the colder island of Hierro; wherein the foun. part of the air at the bottom will tain tree grows. One of these fourpass off through the fire, for fire re. tains is called Acof, which, in the , quires a large quantity of air for its language of the ancient inhabisupport, whilft fresh air is brought tants, fignifies river ; a name, how- : in and warmed by the other pipe. ever, which does not seem to have
Stronger and more sudden agi- been given it on account of its tations of air, sufficient to raise a yielding much water, for in that moderate wind among the plants, respect it hardly deserves the name may be obtained occasionally by of a fountain. 'More to the northmechanic impulse. I have made ward is another called Hapio ; and the outer and inner doors of the in the middle of the island is a room, with a proper cavity be- spring, yielding a stream about tween, serve for a ventilator, the the thickness of a man's finger. check which bounds the cavity on This last was discovered in the one side being made of a circular year 1565, and is called the founcurvature, that the inner door, in tain of Anton Hernandez. On acits motion backwards and for- count of the scarcity of water, the wards, may sit close to it all the sheep, goats, and swine here do not way. The inner door is furnished drink in the summer, but are taught with a valve at bottom, which on to dig up the roots of fern, and pulling the door backwards, re- chew them to quench their thirst. ceives a part of the air of the house The great cattle are watered at into the cavity, and with another those fountains, and at a place at the top, by which, on pushing where water distils from the leaves the door forwards, the air is forced of a tree. Many writers have made out again with strength sufficient to mention of this famous tree, some give a considerable shake to almost in such a manner as to make it apo all the plants in a large hot-house. pear miraculous : others again deny The outer door is also furnished the existence of
any with valves, through which by a among whom is father Feyjoo, a few reciprocations of the inner modern Spanish author, in his Thedoor, the external air is plentifully atro Critico. But he, and those pumped in, or the internal air who agree
with him in this matter, driven out, all the valves being are as much mistaken as they who made to open occasionally, out- would make it appear to be mirawards or inwards, and secured on culous. This is the only island of either side with buttons.
all the Canaries which I have not
been in : but I have failed with The existence of the Fountain tree natives of Hierro, who, when
in the Canary islands ascertain- questioned about the existence of ed, and its effects accounted for. this tree, answered in the affirmaFrom Glass's history of these tive. islands.
The author of the history of the
discovery and conquest has given WHERE are only three foun- us a particular account of it, which tains of water in the whole I shall here relate at large.