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part of his land, could make it falutary region, he found in a few produce a quantity equal to that of months that relief, which all the sowing the whole
power of physic could not afford While the project engrossed the him at home; and he returned conversation of the neighbourhood to appearance perfectly repaired in for many miles round, Mr. Tull his constitution, but greatly ememployed himself alliduously in barrassed in his fortune. training of servants, and in accom- Part of his paternal estate in modating the instruments proper Oxfordshire he had sold, and befor his new husbandry, to their li- fore his departure had fettled his mited capacities : and this work family on his farm at Prosperous, alhe found much harder to accom- ready mentioned, where he returnplish than he at first expected. Ited with a firm refolution to perwas less easy to drive the plough- fect his former undertaking, having man out of his way, than to teach as he thought devised means during the beasts of the field to perform his absence to obviate all difficulthe work. The late Lord Ducie ties, and to force his new husbanMoreton, who followed Mr, Tull, dry into practice by the success of or rather accompanied him in this it, in spite of all the oppofition that laborious and vexatious business, should be raised by the lower class has very frequently, if I have been of husbandmen against it. rightly informed, to correct the He revised and rectified all his aukwardness of his ploughmen, old instruments, and contrived new
overcome their obstinacy, ones proper for the different soils stript himself of his dignity, of his new farm; and he now and put his hand to the plough went on pretty fuccessfully, though himself.
not rapidly, nor much less expenSome time after this, Mr. Tull fively, in the prosecution of his by intense application, vexatious new system. He demonstrated to toil, and viciffitudes of heat and all the world the good effects of cold in the open fields, contracted his horse-hoeing culture ; and by a disorder in his breast, which not raising crops of wheat, without being found curable in England, dunging, for thirteen years together, obliged him a second time to travel, in the same field, equal in quantity, and to seek a cure in the milder and superior in quality to those of climates of France and Italy. Here his neighbours in the ordinary he again attended more minutely course, he demonstrated the truth of to the culture of those countries, his own doctrine, that labour and and, having little else to do, he arrangement would supply the employed himself during three place of dung and fallow, and years residence abroad, to reduce would produce more corn at an his observations to writing, with a equal or less expence. The adview of once more endeavouring vantages attending the new husto introduce them into practice, bandry were now visible to all the if ever he should be so happy as to world ; and it was now that Mr. recover his health, and be able to Tull was prevailed upon by the foundergo the fatigues of a second licitations of the neighbouring genattempt. From the climate of tlemen, who were witnesses of its Montpellier, and the waters of that utility, to publish his theory, il
lustrated by a genuine account of perhaps never saw the originals, the result of it in practice, which and who had not genius to comhé engaged to do, and faithfully prehend the drawings, much less performed at no trivial expence. to improve and render them more Not led by vanity, nor encou
useful. raged by the hope of gain, to com- The intention of this short essay, mence author, he at first thought is to prevent gentlemen from atonly of methodizing his thoughts, tending to the superficial nonsense and claffing his observations into of many writers on husbandry, who fome order for the use of his friends; disgrace the subject, and to direct but when he once engaged, the sub- the practical farmer, who is really ject ripened in his hands, and, like in earnest to improve his farm, the vegetables under his culture, to the genuine source from whence grew more full and perfect by a he may draw that true and exnice and orderly arrangement. perienced knowledge that may be
A genius, and a man zealous for safely relied upon in practice ; if his own reputation and the public that practice can be luckily introservice, cannot handle a favourite duced. subject fuperficially. He entered
D. Y. into the vegetable properties of Hungerford, Oct. 18, 1764. plants, their production and nutrition, with the precision of a philosopher; and he laid down the methods, by which they were to be Some account of the life and writpropagated, with the knowledge of ings of Mr. Thomas Simpson, an old experienced husbandman. late professor of mathematics at The instruments,which after various his majesty's academy at Wooltrials, he had found to anfwer the wich, fellow of the Royal Sociebest, he caused to be carefully con- ty, and member of the Royal structed, and he had them drawn, Academy at Stockholm. and accurately described by good artists, under his own inspection Tluarket-Bosworth, in Leicef
; Homas they were not filched, from one invention under pretence of sup- tershire, Augutt the 20th, O. S. plying the defects of another, with 1710.
His father was a view to acquire the reputation of weaver in that town; and though a mechanic, but were all the genu- in tolerable circumstances, yet, ine production of his own inven- intending to bring up his fon tion, tried and altered again and Thomas to his own business, he again, till they actually performed took so little care of his education, with accuracy and facility the work that he was only taught to read they were intended to complete. - English. Such are the instruments which In the year 1724, the 11th Mr. Tull has exhibited, and which of May, there happened a great have been altered and disjointed, eclipse of the fun, which proved rendered imperfect, and utterly total in several parts of England, useless. by pretended improvers this phænomenon, so awful to both at home and abroad, who many who are ignorant of the caufe
of it, ftruck the mind of young regarding him in this light, should Simpson with a strong curiosity endeavour to ingratiate himself into enter into the reason of it, and to his favour; in which he sucfo be able to predict the like sur- ceeded so well, that the fage was prising events. "It was, however, no less taken with the quick natural five or fix years before he could ob- parts and genius of his new actain his desire, which at length was quaintance. The pedlar intending gratified by the following accident. a journey to Briftol'fair, left in the Being at the house of a relation, hands of young Simpson, who had where he had resided some time, a now taught himself to write, an old pedlar came that way, and took a edition of Cocker's arithmetic, to lodging at the same house. This which was fubjoined a short apman, to his profession of an itine- pendix on algebra, and a book tant merchant, had joined the more of Partridge, the almanac maker, profitable one of a fortune-teller, on genitures. These he had pewhich he performed by dint of ju- rused to so good purpose, during the dicial astrology. Every one knows absence of his friend, as to excite with what regard persons of such a his amazement upon his return : cast are treated by the inhabitants in consequence of which he fat of country villages : it cannot be himself about erecting the followsurprising, therefore, that an untu- ing genethliacal type, in order to tored lad of nineteen should look
a presage of Thomas's future forupon this man as a prodigy, and, tune.
This position of the heavens the that there was still an higher wizard having very maturely con- branch of mathematical knowledge lidered secundum artem, did, with than any he had been yet acquaintmuch confidence, pronounce, that ed with ; and this was the method within two years time Simpson of Fluxions : nevertheless would turn out a greater man than young analist was altogether at a himself.
loss to discover any English author It was not long after this, that who had written on the subject, exMr. Simpson, being pretty well cept Mr. Hayes ; and his work qualified to erect a figure him- being a folio, and then pretty self, did, by the advice of his scarce, exceeded his ability of purfriend, make an open profession chasing : however, an acquaintance of casting nativities ; from whence lent him Mr. Stone's Fluxions, he derived a pretty pittance, so which is a translation of the Mara that he quite neglected his weay- quis de l'Hospital's Analyse des ining, to which indeed he had never finiment Petits : by this one book, manifested any very great attach- and his own penetrating talents, ment, and soon became the oracle he was, as we shall presently see, of Bosworth and its environs. enabled in a very few years to Scarce a courtship advanced to a compose a much accurate match, or a bargain to a fale, treatise on this subject than any without previously consulting the that had before appeared in our infallible Simpson about the con- language. sequences. Helping folks After he had bid adieu to astrostolen goods, he always declared logy and its emoluments, he was above his match ; and that as to driven to hardships for the fubfiflife and death he had no power. tence of his family, having married All those called lawful questions a widow with two children, who he readily resolved, provided the foon brought him two more. He persons were certain as to the ho
came up to London, and for some rary data of the horoscope : and, time wrought at his business in I have heard him say, more than Spitalfields, and taught mathemaonce, with such success, that if, tics when he had any spare time. from very cogent reasons, he bad His industry turned to fo good acnot been thoroughly convinced of count, that he went home and the vain foundation and fallaci- brought up his wife and children to ousness of his art, he never should settle in London. The number of his have dropt it, as he then thought fcholars increasing, and his abilities himself in conscience bound to do, becoming in some measure known and accordingly abandoned it at to the public, he put forth propo
sals for publishing by subscription, Together with his astrology he A new Treatise of Fluxions, wherehad furnished himself with enough in the Direct and Inverse Method of arithmetic, algebra, and geome- are demonstrated after a new, try to be qualified for looking clear, and concise Manner ; with into the Ladies Diary, (of which their Application to Physics and he - had afterwards the direction) Astronomy. Also, The Doctrine
) . whereby he came to understand of infinite Series and reverting Se
ries, universally and amply er- fome useful and easy apprica. plained ; fluxionary and exponen- tions. tial Equations solved, &c.
In the fourth part is shewn the When Mr. Simpson first propof- use of Fluxions in some of the subed his intentions of publishing limest branches of Physics and Assuch a work, he did not know of tronomy; where, besides several any English book founded on the things done in a method quite diftrue principles of Fluxions, that ferent from any thing to be met contained any thing material, ef- with sin other authors, there are pecially the practical part ; and some very useful speculations relatthough there had been some very , ing to the Doctrine of Pendulums curious things done by several and Centripetal forces. learned and ingenious gentlemen, To this is added, a Supplement, the principles were, nevertheless, being a collection of miscellaneous left obscure and defective, and problems, independent of the foreall that had been done by any of going four parts ; and containing, them in infinite Series, very incon- among other matters, an investifiderable.
gation of the areas of Spherical The book was not published till Triangles ; the Curve of Pursuit ; 1737 ; the author having been the Paths of Shadows; the mofrequently interrupted from fur- tion of Projectiles in a Medium ; nishing the press fo fast as he and the manner of finding the atcould have wished, through his tractive force of bodies in different unavoidable attention to his pu- forms, acting according to a given pils for his immediate support. law. The principles of Fluxions therein In 1740, Mr. Simpson published treated of, are demonstrated in a a treatife On the Nature and Laws method exactly true and genuine, of Chance, in 4to. To which is not essentially different from that annexed, full and clear Investigaof their great inventor, being al- tions of two important Problems together expounded by finite Quan- added in the second edition of Mr. tities. In the first and second parts De Moivre's Book on Chances; and are given a great many new, and Two new Methods for summing of some very curious examples in the Series. solutions of problems, rendered His next performance was a 4to. plain to ordinary capacities. volume of Essays on several curious
The second part treats of infinite and useful Subjects in speculative Series, where nothing is proposed and mixed Mathematics. Dediwithout demonstration, and every cated to Francis Blake, esq; fince thing illustrated by easy examples. fellow of the Royal Society, A set of new rules are laid down for his very good friend and patron. finding the forms of series, without Printed in the same year, 1740. taking in any of the superfluous The first of these essays shews
the theory of the apparent place The third part contains a fami- of the stars (commonly called liar method of finding and com- their Aberration) arising from the paring fluents, illustrated with progressive motion of light, and