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On the true Derivation of some mo- tality, when a man was in liquor,

dern English words, From they would call him as drunk as a Burn's History of the Poor Laws. lord. These, and many other like

expressions and customs, which have I

N the rating of wages it is come down to our days, were ori

set forth, how much by the ginally feudal, having relation to day shall be taken by tilers, and the military institution and the difother coverers of fern and straw, tinction betwixt lord and vallal. and their knaves. The Saxon And liere it is observable upon knapa, or knafa, signifies a ser- the subject of cloathing, how the vant. And the thatchers to this restrictions as to the goodness or day have an instrument that holds quantity of cloth in their garments, their straw, which they call knape. vanished by degrees, as manufacWhat is observable here is, the ge- tures increased ; until at length, in nerous notions entertained by our queen Elizabeth's reign, the curancestors, with respect to an action rent received a contrary direction, base and ignoble: they would not and the wearing of the manufacsuppose it to belong to a free- tures was enjoined : concerning man, but appropriated it to the which the first act that hath occurinferior rank of people. A kravish red is that 13 Eliz. c. 19. by which action was such as was fit only for it is required, that every person one of the meaner fervants. A vil above the

age

of fix years (except lain was a degree lower than the maidens, ladies, and gentlewomen : thatcher's servant; for he was the and lords, knights, and gentlemen drudge of his lord, not even suf- of 20 marks a year) shall wear upceptible of property in many cases, · on the fabbath, and holiday, upon but was himself of the goods and their head, one cap of wool, knit, chattels of his master; therefore thicked, and dressed in England, an offence, accompanied with ex- on pain of 3s. 4d. The form of traordinary aggravation, was term- which cap may be seen in fome of ed villainous : as much as to say, the pictures of those days. iniquity degrades a man, and ranks And here curiosity will suggest him among the vulgar --So a man certain reflections upon that noble who was devoid of courage, and subject of painting. Why are perconsequently unfit for the mili- fons pictured in Grecian or Roman tary profession, was denominated habits, and in such habits as never a cow-herd (for that, most proba- were worn in any age? Would it bly, is the genuine etymology of not be infinitely more entertaining, what we now call coward.)-On to see every person drawn in his the other hand, these inferior own proper dress? It would be a persons were not behind-hand with work becoming the pencil of a skil. the great men (for there never ful artist, from such paintings as wanted humour even among the may be yet found, from history, common people): if a man was from acts of parliament, and other half an ideot, or remarkably de- fumptuary laws, to exhibit a series formed in body, they would style of persons, of both sexes, in the him my lord. And by way of ridi- habits of their respective ages, at cule of their jovialness and hospi- 'proper intervals.

A TABLE

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A TABLE exhibiting the Standard. Weight, Value, and a comparative View of English Silver Money from King William I. Anno 1066, to King George III. Anno 1763.

Number of Shil-Weight of 20 Weight of|Value of the Propor- Value of Value of

Standard of the lings, &c. the Shillings in the fine Sil-fame 20 shil- tion of the ounce the ounce
Years

of the Kings and Silver at each pound, or 12 tale of ftand- ver contain-flings in tale Money of stand- of fine Şil.
Queens Reigns, or the Period.

ounces Troy of ard Silver ated in twenty in our pre- at each ard Silver ver ateach Dates of the several Mint

ftandard Silver, each pe- Shillings' in fent money. period in present period. Indentures. Fine Al- has been coined riod. tale at each

to our Money. Silver. lay. into at each pe

period.

present riod.

Money.

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1505 | 11
1509

11
1532
1543 10
1545 6
1546

11 o 11,5500 7 6 1,3776 3 31 1,1635 13 ili 0,6984

3 7 4 ore 4. 9 8 O

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1547

20th fame
ift Henry VIII.
230 & 18th fame
* 24th same
36th same
37th fame
ift Edw.

VI.

IX.
2d fame
3d fame
5th fame
oth same
ift Mary I.
2d Elizabeth
19th and 25th fame
43 fame
2d James I.
22d Charles I.
12th Charles II.
2d fame
ift James II. to the
2d George III.

631 1

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6 9 0 19 1

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9 38 0,4656 4 7 0,2328

63 1,0286 0 5 1,0239

8 1,0333

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Example. The famous chapel (adjoining to the east end of Westminster Abbey) built by King Henry VII. A. D. 1503,
coft 14,0001. which sum, multiplied by 1,6531, answers to 23,1431. of our present money; which is equivalent in
point of expence of living, to 90,0001.' in our days.-Vide Fleetwood's Chronicon Preciosum, and Anderson's Historical
and Chronological Deduction of Commerce, &c.)

Every single article of the above table, I have calculated from datas collected chiefly from those excellent coin notes
inserted at the end of each reign in Nic. Tindal's translation of Rapin's History of England, 2d edit. fol. London, 1732
but not without consulting Bishop Fleetwood's Chronicon Preciosum ; Ste. Martin Leake’s History of English coins ; and
others. H-h, Oct. 23, 1764.

GOTHICK.

;

N

The custom of taking names from Of Surnames; from Bigland's ob- towns and villages in England is servations on Marriages, &c. a sufficient proof of the ancient de

scents of thofe families who are TAMES, called in Latin, no- still inhabitants of the same places.

mina, quasi notamina, were Some took their nanies from their first imposed for the distinction of offices ; others from forests ; others perfons, which we now call Chrif- from woods; others from hills, tian names ; after, for difference of dales, trees, &c. others from fishes, families, which we call surnames, From the alteration of names in and have been especially respected, early times it is, that at this day as whereon the glory and credit of many families, who have neglected men is grounded, and by which to keep up their pedigrees, are at the same is conveyed to the know- a loss to account for the similar ledge of pofterity; and every per- bearing of arms, whose names are fon had in the beginning one only fo widely different, while yet they proper name, as Adam, Joseph, might all originally be descended &c.

from one and the fame common Camden observes, he never could ancestor. Little (for instance) find an hereditary furname in Eng- would any one think to look for land before the conquest : the für- , the family and arms of Botteville, names in Doomsday book were in the present viscount Weymouth; brought in by the Normans, who and this only, becaufe in the reign not long before had taken them, of Edward IV. John de Bottebut they were mostly noted with a ville resided at one of the inns de, as John de Babington, Walter at court, and from thence was de Hugget, Nicholas de Yateman, named John of Th’Inne (Thynne); &c. or Ricardus filius Roberti, &c. and as little would he suspect and that they were not settled that that poor

deserted and examong the common people till posed infant at Newark upon about the reign of king Edward II. Trent, commonly called Surnames not from fire, but because among us, should afterwards be mefuperadded to the Christian name. tamorphosed into the great Dr. Places anciently gave names to per- Thomas Magnus. fons, and not the contrary : William, fon of Roger Fitz Valerine, in the time of king Henry J. being Of ancient Palaces, their gardens born in the castle of Howard, in

and embellishments. Wales, did from thence assume the name of the place of his birth, and HE hotel de St. Paul, built transmitted the same to his posterity. Edward of Caernarvon, fo called cified in his edict of 1364, intendfrom the place of his nativity ; fo ed to be the hotel of great diverThomas of Brotherton, from the fions. Like all the royal houses village in Yorkshire wherein he of those times, it had large towers : was born ; and John of Gaunt, such additaments being thought to from the city of Gaunt in Flanders, give an air of domination and mawhere he was born..

jesty to the building. The gardens,

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instead of yes and lindens, were their gowns, and their own on the planted with apple, pear, and cher left.

This fashion lasted near a, Ty-trees, and vines, besides beds of century: rosemary and lavender, peale and beans, and very large arbours or bowers. The inner courts were lined with pigeon-houses, and full . Abstract of the statutes relating to of poultry, which the king's te- the Brewery at Paris, made in nants were obliged to send, and the year 1268, in the reign of here they were fattened for his St. Louis, and remaining in table, and those of his houshold. force to this day; some of which The beams and joists in the princi- perhaps it would be well to adopt pal apartments were decorated with in England. tin fleur de lys's gilt. All the windows had. iron bars, with a wire i. one shall brew beer, or lattice to keep the pigeons from

remove it in drays, or coming to do their ordure in the otherwise, on Sundays, or on the rooms. The glazing was like that folemn feasts of the holy virgin. of our ancient churches, painted 2. No one shall set up in the with coats of arms, embleme, and brewery who has not served a five saints. The seats were joint stools, years apprenticeship, and been forms, and benches; the king had three years a partner with a regular armed chairs, with red leather and brewer. filk fringes. The beds were called 3. Nothing ihall enter into the couches, when ten or twelve feet composition of beer but good malt square, and those of only fix feet and hops, well gathered, picked, square, couchettes ; these large di- and cured, without any mixture of mensions suited a custom which buck-wheat, darnel, &c. to which subsisted for a long time in France, end the hops shall be inspected by that guests particularly valued were juries to see that they are not used kept all night, and in the fame bed after being heated, mouldy, damp, with the master of the house. or otherwise damaged. Charles V. used to dine about ele- 4. No beer yest shall be hawked ven, supped at seven, and all the about the streets, but shall be all court were usually in bed by nine sold in the brew-houses to bakers in winter, and 'ten in summer. and pastry cooks, and to no others, The queen, (says Christina Pilan) 5. Beer yest brought by foreigns agreeable to an old and laudable ers shall be inspected by a jury becustom, for preventing any idle or fore it is.exposed to fale. loose thought at table, had a learn- 6. No brewer fall keep in or ed man, who during the meal re- about his brewhouse any cows, oxen, lated the actions, or made an elo- hogs, geefe, ducks, or poultry, gium of fome deceased person, as being inconsistent with clean especially of one eminent in piety," liness. It was in Charles's reign that the 7. There shall not be made in mode arose of emblazoning appa- any brew-house more than one rel; the women wore their huf- brewing of fifteen septiers at the band's fhield on the right side of moft, of ground mali, in a day.. VOL, VII,

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