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May I be allowed to make a few A letter from the learned Father reflections upon this literary con.

Jacquier, professor of mathema- test, of which I myself have been tics in the college of Sapienza at one of the more immediate spectaRome, concerning the supposed tors, and which really appears to Egyptian Bust at Turin. (See me little else than a scene of fhufVol. v. page 148.]

fling and wrangling? There are

two things that must be carefully WHEY hand about at Rome an distinguished from each other in



feems designed to renew the literary has been proved by ocular demonwar that was lately carried on in ftration, and that which is destithis city, and at Paris, in relation tute of all proof, which is utterly to the famous Buft, supposed to be uncertain, perhaps false. As to Egyptian, which is to be seen in the first, I myself was twice prethe cabinet of antiquities of the sent when the characters in question king of Sardinia.

were compared and confronted, On the breast and forehead of and I could not observe any sensithat figure several characters are ble difference between thofe of the visible, which fome antiquaries Bust, and those of the Dictionary. have supposed to be Egyptian. Mr. It is true, that at our second meetNeedham having compared them ing, several of the characters in with the characters of a Chinese the dictionary appeared blacker dictionary in the Vatican, perceive than they had formerly done ; but ed a striking resemblance between it is also certain that the Chinese the two.

He drew from this re- librarian had only drawn his pen semblance an argument in favour lightly over these characters to renof the opinion of the learned Mon- der them more distinct, without fieur de Guignes, concerning the changing, in the least, their form. origin of the Egyptians, Pheni- To demonstrate that this was really cians, and Chinese, (or rather con- the case, it is sufficient to obferve, cerning the defcent of the latter that the characters that were thus from the former) and pronounced retouched, are frequently repeated without helitation that the Bust was in other parts of the dictionary, Egyptian.

where, though they have not been The pamphlet now before me touched at all, they bear the very consists of several letters, in which same form. This declaration I the sentiment of Mr. Needham is have been obliged to make from refuted with the greatest warmth ; a regard to truth, in relation to and the anonymous author of it goes the first point in this debate, in lo far as to assert that the charac- which the accuracy and probity of ters of the Chinese dictionary have Mr. Needham are particularly inbeen changed and falsified.


With respect to the conclusion rary contest, ought therefore to that Mr. Needham draws from this grant the fact related by this learnconformity between the characters ed gentleman, as this fact is strictly of the Bust and those of the Dicti- true, and confine their attacks to onary, viz. that the Chinese lan- this hypothesis, in order to shew that guage and characters resembled the proof he draws from this fact of formerly, nay perhaps were the the sameness of language between very fame, with those of the Egypthe Chinese and Egyptians, and of tians, I acknowledge that I cannot the descent of the former from the see its evidence ; nay it appears to latter, is lame and unsatisfactory. me to be manifestly groundless. However this famous question may For let the origin of this Bust be be decided, the discoveries and lawhat it will, (which, by-the-by, bours of Monsieur de Guignes on is not at all believed Egyptian) this subject cannot be too much apand supposing even that the cha- plauded; and it must be always acracters it contains be really Egyp- knowledged, that the work pubtian, no conclusion can be drawn lished at Rome about three years from thence with respect to their ago by Mr. Needham, in relation fignification. It may very easily to this matter, is far from discobe conceived that the Chinese vering that depth of erudition and language, which comprehends such, that inventive genius, that appear a prodigious multitude of charac- in the researches of the learned acaters, may have several which re- demician now mentioned. semble the letters made use of in the oriental languages, and still more the Egyptian hieroglyphics, without signifying the same thing Description of Syracuse, Palermo, that is expressed by these letters and Enna : from M. D’Orville's and hieroglyphics, The following Sicula. fact will fully explain my meaning : I sent to Mr. Needham an exact THE magnificent and famous copy of an Egyptian inscription of city of Syracuse, which conconsiderable length, which is to be tained within its walls four others, seen in the house of Monsieur de

was so destroyed by the Saracens Breteuil, ambassador from the Or- in the IXth century that few traces der of Malta, at Rome. Mr. Need- remain of its ancient grandeur. ham consulted several Chinese dic- The description which our ingenitionaries without being able to find ous traveller has given of it, is by any one of the letters contained in no means the least curious or lealt this inscription ; and even had he laboured part of his book. One found a few, he could not reason- has a fensible pleasure in accompaably have drawn any conclusion nying him ; first, into those vat

1 from thence in favour of this hpyo. quarries, which, like those of the thesis, confidering the abundance mountain of St. Peter near Maeand richness of these languages, and strict, take up almost all the ground the number of characters of which under the city of Arcadina ; after they are composed. The adversa- that, into those magnificent and terries of Mr. Neccham, in this lite- rible quarries which the cruelties


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of Dionyfius the tyrant have im- ble,whose origin was never guessed. mortalized ; and by Tacha, the The quarry in question was open second quarter, to the steep moun- in the form of an ear ; this is all tain Epipolæ, where that barba- the mystery. The fourth quarter

is prince caused the famous pri- of Syracuse was the island of Orson of Latomize' to be built. This tygia, which an edifice with fix able critic next discourses on the gates separates from Arcadina : two Hexapylon of Syracuse, and proves fuperb temples were there to be that it was a long edifice built on seen, dedicated to Minerva and the causeway which joins Acra- Diana. What remains of the for- ' dina to the 'isle of Ortygia, and mer is at this time dedicated to St, where by fix successive gates they Mary of the Column. We must passed from one of those parts of not forget that Ortygia had two the city to the other : he would harbours, the largest, which was on place the castle of Euryalus on the the east, was almost 12,000 paces top of that rock, which is now in circumference.

Very near this called the Belvedere. Descending harbour, on the left, flows the fawith him from Euryalus into the mous fountain of Arethusa*, forplain on the south-side, we find merly nearer to the small harbour, the fource of the fountain Cyane, as the learned Clúverius has demonthe marsh Temenites, the river strated. It is at present almost reAnapus, and not far from thence, duced to nothing: the ruins of the beautiful temple of After doubling the cape

of mount Jupiter Olympus. Returning af- Gerbino, we again see trees, and terwards into that quarter of Syra- by degrees a fruitful country, as cuse which is called Naples, or the one approaches to Palermo, forNew City, our author makes us ob- merly Panormus. This capital at serve, among other things, the re- a distance makes no grand appear. mains of a theatre and an amphi- ance, because it lies in a bottom; theatre near each other, with some but the farther one advances, the quarries, which, like the forego- more delightful is the aspect, espeing, after having furnished mate- cially on the sea-side. rials for buildings, have been con- street, which leads from the beach, verted into sepulchres, or appro- crosses all the city like a rope : priated to other uses. There it is this street is cut in the center by that one sees the famous prison another, which forms there a square which even now retains the name which is called I quatre Cantoni, of Dionysius's ear, because, it is and which is superbly furnithed faid, that the tyrant had fixed there with magnificent fountains, adornsome secret pipes, by means of ed with beautiful ftatues. In ge which; on placing his ear at an neral, Palermo is decorated with a hole, he heard every thing that the multitude of churches, convents, prisoners said of him; a vulgar fa- and other buildings, which give it a

A large

* In hac insula extrema est fons aque dulcis, cui nomen Arethusa est, incredibili magnitudine, plenissimus piscium ; qui fructu totus operiretur nisi mznitione ac mole lapidum a mare disjunctus esse. CICERO.---For the story of Alpheus and Archula, see Qvid. Netan, 6. 5.


fuperiority over all the cities of Si. the torments which they have sufcily, and equal it to those moft ad- fered. But what makes an admitmired in Italy; but the modern tance after death into this frightful has there absorbed the antique. fociety fo desirable, is the reputaAs to inscriptions, scarce any an- tion of the sanctity of these good cient remains are to be found fathers, and their readiness to perhere.

form miraculous cures, of which our Our author nevertheless describes author had the satisfaction to see a fepulchral stone, on which is to the farce. Besides, many of these be seen the figure of a woman, who spectres begin to be thought prodihas all the air of an Egyptian, gies; and, upon the whole, great without our being able to say that pains are taken to make the devout the is one ; for it seems undeniable multitude believe, that the prefer. that the people of Panormus and vation of these carcasses is itself a their neighbours had adopted the miracle much fuperior to the powers funeral ceremonies that were ob- of nature and of art.

It is never served in Egypt. Not long ago a theless well known, that in many fepulchral grotto was discovered in fubterraneous places, the nature of the territory of Solus, where were the ground alone, by means of found, among a number of vases some precautions, effects this pre. and utensils, many idols, made en- tendid prodigy; witness the catirely in the Egyptian taste. Of verns of Tholouse and of Cremona, all this M. D'Orville gives exact and especially those of the capurepresentations.

chins of St. Ephraim at Naples. M. A fight which struck him ex- D’Orville had been there, and he tremely was the subterraneous vault informs us, that instead of drying of the capuchins near the harbour them (as they do) and preparing of Palermo. On entering it, one their fkeletons with lime, the cainftantly sees with horror above puchins of Palermo are contented 1000 dead bodies dried up and fix- with hanging for a year in some lited either to the walls or in the tle caves inaccessable to the air, the niches of that dreadful cemetery. corpses of those who are destined to All these skeletons are clothed in the honour of figuring in this grand grey, like the fathers of the con- assembly, which represents the dovent; though they admit the dead minions of death and the fhades. of all ranks, as well those who are Passing by the lake Pergus, one ambitious of that honour, as those of the most beautiful places in the to whom it becomes a disgrace. world, M. D’Orville arrived at The attitudes of the latter are va- Enka, now called Castro Giovani : rious, like the punishments of it is a strong and spacious city, built which they were worthy. Here is on an eminence in the center of the a figure, which, crowned with illand, where it commands a mos thorns, seems to have been torn in delightful and most fertile terri: pieces by them. There is another tory. There it is that Gelon dediwhich bends under the weight of cated to Ceres that grand and suan enormous cross. Others have a perb temple of which the ancients rope round the neck'; one thinks have said so much, but which proone can read in their countenances bably was never finilhed. From


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the places where it stood one dif- the powerful and most ancient city covers an immense country as far as of Tarquinii once ftood; though the citadel of Montreal, which is at prefent it is only one continued but four miles from Palermo. To field of corn. On the south-eaft the west of Enna is a place called side of it runs the ridge of an hill, by distinction Il Monte, or the which unites it to Corneto. This mountain ; the inhabitants resort ridge is at least three or four miles thither to worship some faint, I know in length, and almost entirely conot whom, with a devotion fo fer- vered by several hundreds of artifivent, that when our travellers 'ar- cial hillocks, which are called by the rived there, they were forced to fast, inhabitants, Monti Rossi. About finding nobody at home; M. D’Or- 12 of these hillocks have at differville therefore in his resentment for- ent times been opened ; and in got the name of the faint, who was every one of them have been found too much worshipped for the wel- several subterraneous apartments, fare of his stomach ; a fatal forget- cut out of the folid rock. There fulness, for one should have been apartments are of various forms glad to know under whose auspices and dimensions : some consist of a one of the most famous places in large outer room, and a small one history now is ; the place at which within ; others of a small room at the king of hell issued forth, seized the first entrance, and a large one Proserpina, and carried her into his within ; others are supported by a doleful dominions. It probably be- column of the folid rock left in longs to the Franciscans, with whom the center, with openings on every our author passed the night. If part, froin 20 to 30 feet. The enthey had entertained him better, he trance to them all is by a door of would not have forgotten their tu- about 5 feet in height, by two feet telary god.

and an half in breadth. Some of these have no light but from the door, while others seem to have had

a small light from above, through An account of some subterraneous an hole of a pyramidical form.

Apartments, with Etruscan in- Many of these apartments have an scriptions and paintings,discover- elevated part that runs all round ed at Civita Turchino in Italy. the wall, being a part of the rock Communicated from Joseph Wil

. left for that purpofe. The movecox, Esq; F. 8. A. by Charles ables found in these apartments Morton, M. D. F. R. S. · consist chiefly in Etruscan vases of

various forms ; in fome indeed have YIvita Turchino, about three been found some plain facrophagi


neto, is an hill of an oblong form, whole of these apartments are stucthe summit of which is almost one coed, and ornamented in various continued plain. From the quan- manners : some indeed are plain : tities of medals, intaglios, frag- but others, particularly three, are ments of infcriptions, &c. that are richly adorned, having a double occasionally found here, this is be- row of Etrufcan inscriptions runlieved to be the very spot where ning round the upper part of the

walls, ,

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