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spend as well as if it had been got On the benefit of Salt to Cattle, in never so favourably. with the method of using it. When
servants were making
up the stack I had it managed in Do not find that the farmers in I
the following manner ; that is, as England know the great ad- soon as a bed of hay was laid vantages which may be derived about fix inches thick, I had the from the use of falt in the business whole sprinkled over with salt; of fattening cattle; whereas in then another bed of hay was laid, America we think it in a manner which was again sprinkled in like absolutely necessary, and accord
manner; and this method was fol. ingly give it to almost every kind lowed till all the hay was stacked. of cattle ; and those with parted When the season came for cuthoofs are particularly fond of it. ; ting this hay, and giving it to my
There cannot be a greater in cattle, I found, that so far from ftance of this fondness than the refusing it, they eat it with surprizwild cattle resorting to the falt ing appetite, always preferring it lick, where they are chiefly kill, before the sweetest hay that had ed. We give this name of falt not been in this manner sprinkled licks to the falt springs which in with salt. various places issue naturally out of the ground, and form each a little rill.
Horses are as fond of salt as A method of making all kinds of black cattle : for with us, if they Wood more durable than they are ever so wild, they will be naturally are, successfully tried much sooner brought to a handful
upon beech wood. of falt than to any kind of corn whatever.
We also give salt to our sheep; to be very much subject to and to this practice it is generally breed the worm, which presently ascribed, that the American cattle destroys it: this worm is supposed, in general are so much more not without reason, to feed on the healthy than the same animals in fap that remains in the wood after England ; certain it is, that they it is cut out into scantlings, and are there subject to much fewer wrought up ; therefore I imagined diseases.
the best way to preserve it was to There is one very advantageous take away the food that the worm practice we have, which I cannot fed on, by extracting, in some enough recommend to the notice manner, the sap. of the farmers here in England : it There was, as I have been inis mixing falt with our hay-ricks formed some years ago, an attempt when we stack it, which we call made to prepare beech-timber in brining.
such a manner as to make it fit for Just before I left America I had the purposes for which elm is often a crop of hay, which was in a man- used in thip-building; and a patent ner spoiled by rain, being almost was obtained for the invention ; rotten in the field ; yet did this hay but I never heard of this scheme
meeting with encouragement, which apt to make them shiver, and be
The timber, when applied to
as follows : after the durable as elm. Between thirty timber was fawed into fcantlings, and forty years ago I used beech or hewed only, if it was to be used thus prepared, for beams, joists, in an entire piece, it was laid in a and floors, which are to this day bed of sand, which fand was con- as found as ever, and likely to retained in a building of brick work, main so; I had, however, the
precontrived in such a manner as to be caution to give the wood a thick heated, by means of properly-dif- coat of pitch wherever it touched posed furnaces, to any degree. the brick work, for it does not
This heating of the land caused love any kind of dampness, which the wood which it covered to inclines it to rot, like elm; but sweat out its fap, which was all keep it dry, and I cannot say how imbibed by the dry fand, and the long it will last in my method of timber was left, after the opera- preparing it. tion, in a state much improved. The beech I used was felled in
I do not deny but that this me- the heat of summer, when in full thod was very efficacious, but it fap, as I judged the fap was at that appears on the face of it to be ex- season in the most fluid state, and pensive.
would the readier quit the wood I use, for the purpose or im- than when it was dead, and conproving this wood, two several me- gealed, as it were, in an inactive thods. When the scantlings are state in winter. large, I lay them, after they are If I remember right, the beams rough-wrought, to soak in a pond and large pieces were left above of water for some weeks, more or twenty weeks in the pond, the joists, less, according to the girt of the and rafters about twelve weeks, pieces, and the season of the year; and the thinner boards eight ; and in the heat of summer the opera- afterwards they were all gradually tion is soonest done. If they are dried in the manner above directed. planks or boards, and there is I boil in a large copper, which danger of their warping, I lay holds near'two hogtheads, for two them to dry under cover from the or three hours, all the beech wood fun and rain, putting bits of laths I employ in smaller uses, which is betwixt the boards to prevent their no inconsiderable quantity in a lying close together, and a con- year, being a chair-nıaker and å ,
, siderable weight of stones, &c. turner by trade ; and then, before over all. If they are blocks of a I dry it, I bestow another short large scantling, for beams, joists, boil on it of about a quarter of an &c. for which this wood is some- hour, in some frelh water, the first times used, I take no other caution being strongly impregnated with than letting them dry gradually, the lap, and acquiring a high cowithout being exposed either to the lour and a þitter taste. This way fun or the rain, which would be of managing the wood takes out all
the fap: it works pleasanter, is haps will expect that I shall inform more beautiful when finished, and you in what manner this wood was lafts, without comparison, longer. prepared, and I am happy in ha
I have often thought, that for ving it in my power to oblige you. many uses it would be a great im- The method is fimple ; it is only provement of this wood, if it was soaking the wood in water, a third time to be boiled in some which equal quantities of common vegetable oil, or at least, if not falt and vitriol have been dissolved; boiled in it, managed in some man- but the water should be nearly faner that the pores of the wood turated, or the success will not be should be filled with the fat juice'; so certain'; the wood is to be dried, but as this is expensive, and I had and is afterwards fit for any use, no immediate occasion for such an and seems particularly toʻbe adaptimprovement, I never made the ed to wainscoting, as that is most trial ; and it is too late in life for in danger when fire breaks out in a me to do it now.
Extract of 'a letter from Vevai in On staining elm boards of a maho
Switzerland, July 25th, 1764: hogany colour, with a hint tocontaining an easy method of wards staining Wood 'whilst making Wood less combustible. growing B 1 that promises to be of public
SI am very fond of mahoA
gany furniture, I immediutility, I was the other day muchately (on reading a paper relating gratified by seeing an experiment to a method of imitating it) entered made to prove the efficacy of a on fome experiments for that purmethod discovered by Dr. Hen- pose; but as a particular narrative choz, for making wood less com- of each would be too tedious to rebustible. When the company was peat, I shall only observe, that the assembled, several fir billets were method which fucceeded best with produced which had been previ- me was as follows : ously prepared according to the I took two pieces, one of elm, doctor's directions. We made a and another of plane, both of which large fire, and laying on one of the I stained well with aquafortis. above billets, it remained a con- I then took two drachms of powfiderable time uninjured, seeming dered dragon's blood, one drachm of to repel the fire ; ať last however it powdered alkanet root, and half a was with some difficulty consumed, drachm of aloes; from all which I or rather it mouldered into ashes, extracted a tincture, with half a but without emitting any flame. pint of spirits of wine : this tincWe repeated the experiment seve- ture I laid over the wood with a ral times, and always with the spunge for two or three times, and fame success; by which we found, it gave the colour of a piece of that in an ordinary fire this wood fine old mahogany. remained unconsumed. You per- But may not wood be more uni-'
formly and durably coloured while greatest demand ; the consequence growing, since the bones of ani- of which may be reasonably supmals, as I myself have often seen, posed an increase of its price, unless are successfully coloured by feeding greater supplies can be discovered them on madder-roots ? The anhe- than what at present are known. lent tubes, by which trees fuck These considerations have fretheir nourishment from the earth, quently induced me to wish, for are analogous to the mouths of ani. the sake of the middle and lowest mals, and the circulating vessels of ranks of people, that more frequent the former are much larger than trials might be made for this valuthose in the bones of the latter. able mineral ; and as I live in the
neighbourhood of many collieries, I have, as opportunity and leisure
would permit, made frequent inDirections for discovering Coal, quiries and observations on the mines.
most probable signs of it on the sur
face under which it is to be exIMA Nquiries of this nature will, I pected ; some of which I now pro
am very apprehensive, become pose to communicate, as, perhaps, every year more necessary, as many from these hints, an inquiry of this parts of this island are almost defti- nature may be carried further by tute of that, without which we can- persons better qualified for such not sublift, I mean fuel for fire. undertakings. And many other parts, from which
One general, and I think it may those were once supplied with wood be faid certain sign is, iron ore : for fuel, have now very little to for wherever this is to be met with, spare ; for which cause, not only coal is near. our large cities and principal towns, But the better to guide, it may but also great part of the inhabić not be amiss to fix some certain and tants in country places, must be easy-to-be-known fign, on or near supplied with something as a substi- the surface, as a standard by which tute, as turf, peat, or coals. to direct the search : inasmuch as
From the first no great supply the earth is composed of several can be expected, except to those strata, consisting of different kinds who reside near such barren sandy of earth and stones, all which have heaths where petty whin, heather, a fall or dip to some point between and sort furze, plentifully grow : the north and south eastward, their from the second, it is true, fome- several sections appearing on the thing may be expected, as large surface in the opposite points, and quantities thereof may be bad in are by miners, at least those who dig many counties;
but as an unplea- coal, called the crop of the veins. fant smell accompanies the burning This being premised, I would it, it is not likely there will be any propose the ftratuin of free stone, more of it used for culinary uses or what may be be better known by than what bare necessity obliges ; the name of Bath-stone, for the so that it may be juftly concluded, standard, as being the easiest to be coals will ever remain that kind of discovered on the surface ; laying fuel for which there will be the it down as a certain maxim (at
leaft it has appeared no other to me) water frequently stands in little that not any coals are to be met puddles, the bottom and fides of with to the south or south-east of which are generally covered with the section of this ftratum * ; but yellowish flime, resembling sulphur must be looked for, if any success be in appearance ; and if the surface of expected, on the opposite fide be- the ground be so situated as that the tween the north and south westward. water may drain off, the course or • The section of the stratum, which channel in which it runs is usually appears next on this fide, is a kind of the like colour, and even the of fandy rock, in which large stones are tinged therewith. stones of harder consistence lie in- But though I have called this a terspersed ; next unto this frequent- ftratum, or one layer, yet it is ly appears a section of the white made up of several strata, conlyas-stone, but not in every place, fisting of coal, of dun, which is it being in some places loft in an- an imperfect coal, earth, and ftony other stratum, consisting of very substance, each being of various hard lime-stone and a kind of grey thickness, so that the sections of iron flinty-stone intermixed, which the strata of coals are often a conlieth on a stratum of marl of va- fiderable distance from each other : rious colours, but mostly red, but the pits or shafts, by which brown, and blue, in veins. the coal is brought to land, are
The next section is clay, the mostly made in or near the section colour frequently varying, but is of the stratum of clay ; sometimes mostly of that of yellow ochre, in- in that of marl, and sometimes in clining to an orange ; under which the penant; but in neither of these is the stratum of penant-rock, in two very often ; and in finking which are frequently met veins of down through these, that is, the iron, anfwering the character of clay and penant, there is frethat metal in every respect, except quently found in the clay very ductility; and very frequently do hard lyas, or faints-head stones; appear, in the quarries of the stone and in the stratum of penant, its of this stratum, lumps of pure coal hardness, which appears at its fecin folid pieces of this stone'; and tion, is generally become soft, and sometimes thin veins of coal between when exposed to the air and wef, the strata of stone in this stratum. subject to fall to pieces.
Next unto this, and often intermixed with it, is the section-stratum, which contains the coal, and Memoirs concerning the method of is what the miners call the
of making Salt-petre in Podolia, the vein, and is discovered by the written originally in Latin by ground being springy, and subject Dr. Wolf, and translated for the to green mols; amongst which service of the public, by a gentle
* According to the best observation I have been capable of making, this Itratum has its course through England nearly in a line, N. E. by N. and S. W. by S. Tnis I apprehend to be its bearing, though allowance muft he made før the projecting of promontories, and the inequality of the surfaces, by wbich means it is in some places thrown in opposite directions, but in a few miles refume; its natural course.