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the revenues of the republic in such its fupply, and always below the a manner, that none but itself market price. should be in a capacity to relieve As to the magazines of the lethe people, than it would be, if cond fort, they are called the proby augmenting the salaries of their vision, and were established in purofficers, which they are well able suance of a convention called the to do, they should become, after dissentional, which the whole Helthe example of many great states, vetic body hath entered into for rich citizens in a poor republic. the common defence of Switzerland But it is time to finish this long in case of an attack from a foreign digreffion, and to apply myself to enemy. This treaty, regulating fatisfy, Sir, your curiosity: I the number of troops and artillery will begin by laying before you which each canton is bound to furthe nature of the magazines for nifh, obliges them, at the same corn.
time, to have always ready, and The people of Berne have two in store, provision and ammuniforts, one subject to great variations, tion in proportion to their continthe other always the same. gent. There are of these maga
There are of the first sort many zines of provision, as well at Berne in the capital, and in many other as in all the castles where the parts of the canton, which are fill- bailiffs reside : they are never either ed, more or less, according as the diminished or increased, only care abundance of the harvest, and is taken to keep them always in goodness of the grain, furnish an 'good order, and to substitute good opportunity ; for, besides the fixed
corn in the place of that which derevenue which the state hath in cays. A bailiff, who should diffee-farm rents, it hath a great apply this provision, would be dequantity of tithes, which are of a posed : and from time to time the very casual, and very different deputies of Berne, without giving produce. When there are several notice of their intention, visit these fruitful
years in succession, the magazines, and cause the corn to granaries of this fort in the capital be measured over. Although there become full ; but in other parts, if is fix times more corn in these mathere is an appearance, towards gazines than the contingent, which Fafer, of a good harvest, the corn Berne furnishes by the diffentional, is sold which is in the castles of requires, they have never taken the different bailiwicks, after hav- out, in times of peace, more than ing paid the several salaries to one fourth part in an exceeding which they are made liable ; and scarcity; and they have had great the bailiffs, who have a certain care to refill them without delay. revenue made good to them, ac- This is, Sir, in abridgment, an count for the surplus to the cham- account of the magazines for the ber of economy at Berne. The provision of corn in the canton of magazines of this capital, on the Berne. Several short crops withcontrary, are never opened, and in fifteen years having caused the fold but in dear times ; and then common people to suffer by the care is taken not to sell to any fa- high price which they were obligmily more than is sufficient for ed to give for their bread, and the
corn which the goverment caused this commodity, both of which are to be purchased in Burgundy and inconveniences, in their conse: Suabia, and resold to a great loss, quences hurtful enough to deserve having given but little relief to the the care of a sovereign to prevent, misery of the poor, there is at who hath nothing more at heart present a project under considera- than to procure, as much as can tion at Berne, which, if it is brought depend on his care and foresight, to pass, will, in all probability, the happiness of the people which prevent the subjects of this state Providence hath fubmitted to his from paying very dear for their government. bread for the time to come; which As to wine, the state of Berne is this : it is proposed to build, having a great quantity of wine, in those parts of the canton which as tithes and quit-rents, in the are most fruitful in corn, large several vineyards in the canton, had granaries, and at such times when formerly a great deal in store, both the abundance of the harvest shall at Berne and elsewhere, of which have caused the value of a certain they made use, in short years,
both measure of corn to fall below a to pay the salaries in wine, which certain price, to buy up, on ac
are annexed to a number of emcount of the government, all that ployments, and to supply the poor shall be left for sale in the markets, citizens therewith at a moderate after private persons have done price, observing the fame precaubuying, to the end that the owner tion as when they sell corn at a or farmer may be always fure of low price ; but the falaries in wine having a certain price for his corn, have by little and little increased and not be under a necessity of to such a degree, that at this day being at the expence and trouble there is so little left to be laid up, of laying up what he may have left that after two succeeding short in the town-hall, or carrying it years, the state finds itself under a home again, or else selling it at too necessity of paying a great part of low a price to foreigners in the the salaries in money, which were neighbourhood, of whom the sub- appointed to be paid in wines, in jects of Berne are often afterwards order to keep it in their obliged to buy it again at an exor- supply the tradesmen and other bitant rate. The government, on poor citizens of Berne therewith at the contrary, will sell their corn a low rate. again to their subjects as soon as I hope, Sir, that I have been ever the price shall have risen to a fo successful as to satisfy your cucertain degree ; and by this ma- riosity; and have the honour to nagement they will prevent both be, Sir, the too high, and too low price of
Your humble servant,
An Account of the progress of Grain from the Market to the Mouth ; made by an accurate trial near Kettering, and exhibited before four of his majesty's justices of the peace for the county of Northampton, August 3, 1757.
A bushel of it Weight of the Loaves, Weight when baked.
half made into unbaked.
Ib. oz. peuny loaves, 7
4 penny loaves, of
Flour 22 8} each at
Water 9 11 lb. oz. Ib. Ib. oz. Ib.
oz. Barm Wheat, Kettering,
6 Salt 0 Odd weight 4
Odd weight Dough 33
oz. / Ib.
the palm-tree is the most extraorEncouragement for planting Palm. dinary tree in Egypt;' the boughs trees in higz latitudes. are of a grain like cane. When
the tree grows large, a great numHIS wonderful tree, which ber of fibres shoot out from the
affords such plenty of fruit, boughs on each side, crossing one and contributes so largely to the another in fuch a manner as to form sustenance of the inhabitants in a sort of clofe net-work; this they many parts of the globe, is pro- fpin with the hand, and with it pagatod either from young shoots make cords of all sizes, which are taken from the roots of full grown mostly used in Egypt. They also trees, or from the fione of the make a brush for cloaths. Of the fruit. The former method is chief- leaves they make mattresses, bafly used in the kingdoms of Algiers kets, and brooms; and of the and Tunis ; and those that are branches all forts of cage-work, well transplanted, and sufficiently square baskets for packing, and watered for four or five days (which which serve for many uses instead is the only culture they require) of boxes, &c. will yield fruit in fix or seven Tbese trees are male and female, years.
but the fruit of the female will be The palm-tree is in its greatest dry and insipid without a previous vigour when about 30 years old, communication with the male; the and continues in full strength near trees will even frequently cast the 70 years longer, bearing yearly in fruit; nor will it ever ripen to perAlgiers and Tunis, during this in- fection without such congress. terval of time, 15 or 20 clusters of There are several ways of fæcundates, each weighing 15 or 20 dating this tree : fome plant males pounds. The firit is oval, about near the females, that the prolific 3 inches long, and 2 wide, having duft of the male may be conveyed something of the taste of ginger- by the air to the female ; others bread. After 100 years growth, tie clusters of the male flowers to they begin gradually to moulder the females. Dr. Shaw fays, that and pine away, and perish about in Algiers and Tunis (at which the latter end of their second cen- places the male trees are scarce) tury.
they used the parts of generation The palm-trees are found also of this plant, and in a manner some. at St. Helena, Madagascar, Bar- what analogous to animal propagabadces, where the inhabitants make tion : and this way one male tree honey, wine, and sugar from them. is sufficient to impregnate 500 feAnd among the several vegetable male trees. But the most ancient substances which afford oil, fo ne- and frequent practice was, to take cellary, for maintaining life, and a whole cluster of the male tree,
, promoting manufactories, I know when in flower, and sprinkle the none, says Sir Hans Sloane, but. farina, or dust of it, over several the fruit of this and the olive-tree, clusters of the female. whose pulps are useful for these The following extract of a purposes.
letter from Berlin, is a demonftraDr. Pococke informs us, that tive proof of the probability of
this useful and curious tree's suc- High in the vegetable world, and ceeding in high latitudes.
to engage reflecting minds to con“ There is a great palm tree in fider the nice distinction in plants, the garden of the Royal Academy; notwithstanding the near affinity it has flowered and produced fruit of the species ; it will not be amiss these thirty years; but the fruit to observe, that even though the never ripened, and when planted female tree of one speeies may be did not vegetate. The palm-tree fæcundated by the male of another, you know, is one of those in and the fruit grow to maturity and which the male and female parts perfection, yet the stones are renof generation are found upon dif- dered incapable of vegetation by ferent plants. We having there an imperceptible barrier, an infore no male plant, the flowers of violable law of the divine Author. our female were never impregnated The following remarkable instance by the farina of the male. There will display that wonderful cecois a male plant of this kind at nomy in nature to preserve the Leipfic, twenty German miles from different genuses of plants distinct Berlin. We procured from thence, and separate. in April 1749, a branch of male A French author tells us, that flowers, and suspended it over being at Martinico he faw growing those of our female ; and the ex- near the place where they anchorperiment succeeded fo well that our ed
ed a palm-tree bearing dates, palm-tree produced more than 100 though the only one of its kind perfect ripe fruit ; from which we which was in that neighbourhood ; have already eleven young palm- but he imagines this tree to have trees. This experiment was been impregnated by the farina peated last year, and our palm- fæcundans of the male cocoa-tree, tree bore above 2000 ripe fruit.” which is a sort of palm, and which This relation is very curious, on grew in abundance near the tree account of the male and female that bore dates. At the fame time palm-trees flourishing so compleat- he adds, that the stones of the ly, even under all possible disad- dates did not vegetate. vantages, in such high latitudes as For further information concernLeipsic and Berlin.
ing this, and some other very reJohn Bauhin describes and fi- markable plants, I would recomgures the whole fructification of a mend to the reader’s perufal a very palm-tree, which he himself faw curious botanical memoir, publishgrowing at Montpelier, and which ed in the 47th volume of the Phiproduced branches both of male losophical Transactions, page 169. and female flowers, bearing dates ; I shall conclude with observing, and Mr. Ray, many years after, that perhaps no tree is more fretells us, that he himself law, at quently mentioned by the inspired Montpellier, this very remarkable writers than the palm-tree, or aptree mentioned by John Bauhin. plied, by way of similitude, &c. to
But further to display the curi- more noble purposes. ous manner and impenetrable se
A-Zcrecy of the works of the Most