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than Cape Barbas, in latitude 22 communicated to the public, that degrees north ; buť now they go to seems to merit peculiar attention, Cape Blanco, which lies about 30 being founded on a set of experileagues beyond it. Although the ments judiciously made and apbulk of their cargoes consists of plied, in a work intituled, Experilarge bream, yet they catch many mental Essays, by David M.Bride,
, , other forts, viz. taflarte, before furgeon. mentioned, a delicious fish, which The humanity, the importance, tastes like a very large and fat and usefulness of the author's demackarel, but when dried cannot fign, are evidently such, that I be distinguished from dried fal- thought I could not do a better mon. The cod caught here is bet-, service to my country, than by exter than that of Newfoundland : hibiting to the observation both of the anhoua is exceeding good : the the learned and unlearned the folcorbino is a large fish, weighing lowing sketch of it. about 30 pounds. There are be- It is a well-known fact, that sides these a number of flat fish, the disease above-named has never with many
other forts which I can- yet been known to yield to any not describe.
other kind of remedies, than to Although this fishery is capable such as are composed of fresh vegeof the greatest improvement, yet tables ; and provided they be the English have no reason to be fresh, and taken in large quantiapprehensive of the Spaniards ever ties in the way of diet, it is almost being able to bring it to any degree no matter what they are ; the acid, of perfection, so as to rival them in the alcalescent, the mild and the the Spanish and Italian markets : acrid, the sweet and the bitter, all the power of the clergy in Spain is and each of them cure the scurvy, a better security to the English though their fenfible qualities be against such an event, than if a fo opposite, and their manner of fleet of 100 fail of the line were affecting the body in ordinary cases stationed on the coast of Barbary to be fo different. This plainly shews obstruct the Spanish fishery.
then that their operation on the scorbutic humour must depend on some property which all fresh ve
getables poffefs in common. Fresh wort, or the infusion of malt, Now a property common to first proposed ly Mr. David all fresh vegetables is, that when
M Bride, surgeon, and now re- mixed with the flesh or juices of commended to trial by Dr. Rutty, any animal, they presently run as a powerful antiscorlutic in into fermentation, and in the long voyages.
course of that fermentation, throw
off a subtile vapour, which hath MONG the
a surprising power to restore attempts that have of late sweetness to putrid animal subyears been made for preventing or stances. checking the progress of that dire- This our author hath
fatifful malady, the feurvy at fea, there factorily proved by a great numis one which hath lately been ber of experiments which give
the strongest reasons to believe that Wherefore all persons concerned the cure of the scurvy depends in long voyages, and particularly entirely on the fermentation of the East India company (for now the fresh vegetables, which is car- in time of peace the king's fhips ried on in the stomach and bowels, will seldom be visited with the thus producing a great quantity scurvy) ought to pay attention to of the vapour above-mentioned, the proposal of our author ; namewhich mixes with the blood, and ly, to carry out malt on board the there restores its consistence, and' fhips, which is to be previously brings back its sweetness ; for in well dried and packed in small the fcurvy, the blood is entirely dif- casks, and these are to be stowed folved into a thin and putrid ichor. in the bread-room, or some other
This being the case, we have dry part of the ship, and kept unonly to find out fome vegetable til the fcurvy shall begin to appear substances which may be kept for among the crew ; then the malt is a length of time, and yet shall con- to be coarsely ground and brewed tain materials for raising a fermen- into wort occasionally, as it may tation in the bowels like unto that happen to be wanted. raised by fresh vegetables, and then, The manner proposed for brewin all human probability, we shalling the wort is, to pour three at all times be masters of a remedy parts of boiling water to one of the for the scurvy:
ground malt, and having let the Such
a substance our author mixture stand close covered up for presumes to be malt.--Malt differs three or four hours, then to strain widely from the grain in its crude it off: and the method in which it ftate; by the germination, drying, is to be given is to boil it up into and light torrefaction, its natural a panada, with sea-biscuit, or fome viscidity is destroyed,' it acquires of the dried fruits that are usually an agreeable faccharine taste, and carried to sea; then let the scorthe farinaceous part is so far atte- butic patients make at least two nuated, as to be rendered soluble meals a day of this palatable mess, in water.
and let them drink
a quart or Fresh wort, or an infusion of more, if it shall be found to agree, malt, is a liquor similar to the recent (always, however, beginning with juices of the fresh vegetables, fer- a smaller dose, and gradually inmenting readily like them, and creasing it) of the fresh infusion being precisely of the same mild, fa- every twenty-four hours. ponaceous, and aperient nature. Its most likely effect will be to
Now there is nothing more cer- open the belly, a most agreeable tain than that these juices cure the circumstance to the poor scorbu. scurvy : what then should hinder tics, in whom obstinate costiveness wort from doing the same thing ? is a very common symptom; yet and as it may be taken in as if it be taken too liberally, it may large a quantity, with as much occasion fevere griping and immosafety, and as little disgust as any derate purging = when this hapfresh juice whatsoever, there can pens, the dose must be lessened, be no poffible objection to its be- and some drops of the acid elixir ing tried.
of vitriol may be given with it, in VCL. VII.
order to check the too great ten- Arts, &c. was making, he had ocdency to fermentation, and make casion to mix with clay a large it fit easier on the stomach.
quantity of water in a cistern. It is, however, to be noted, After the water and clay had that though our author insists chief- remained thus mixed for some ly on the wort, as thinking it comes weeks, he tasted the water before the nearest to the fresh juices in it should be thrown out, and found every respect, yet where malt has it sweet and well flavoured. On not been carried out, and molasses, this he stirred them, to find whether brown sugar, or honey, happen to any putrid stench might rise from be at hand, he desires that either the bottom, but was agreeably of them may be tried, being pre, surprized to find that the whole was viously dissolved in a due propor- equally sweet. tion of water (about four to one) He now resolved to keep it and given to patients in the way of longer, in order to determine what drink and panada, as hath been al- effects time might have on the ready proposed.
mixture, and, if my memory serves That a scheme so easily practi- me right, repeated the tastings cable, and with a probable pro- and stirrings for several months, spect of success, may be put in ex- with equal success, though some ecution, is earnestly recommended part of the time was summer, to those whom it may concern ; during which he expected that the and if the success should prove water would have become highly equal to the expectations reason- putrid. ably formed of it, it would do He communicated this discovery honour to the British islands, and to the Society for the Encouragebe a standing evidence, that whilftment of Arts, who paid the regard we are retiring from the tumults to his communication which fo and stratagems of war, we are not important a matter deserved, and negligent in promoting the more referred it to the committee of glorious arts of peace and love. chemistry, with orders to make This is the aim of the present re- what experiments should seem to commendation of the above-men- them requisite to determine a tioned scheme from one who has point so necessary to the welfare of the pleasure of an acquaintance numbers, as many diseases are with the author, and of being a known to take their rise from puwitness to the truth of his experi- trid water ; and the whole was apment.
proved by them. JOHN RUTTY. Thus, then, every cottager has Dublin, 23d, 11th month, 1764. it in his power constantly to use
sweet and wholesome water, by just
mixing with water a quantity of Easy method of hindering, Water its transparency, fo far as that the
common clay sufficient to take off from growing putrid.
hand held juft under the surface IN N the course of experiments shall not appear through it.
which a very ingenious and If I may venture my opinion, useful member of the Society of' I think the clay acts only as a sub
some better pen.
fance of exceeding small particles, of water, containing about ninety which being diffused through the gallons. minute interstices between the par
The following morning the waticles of water, adhere, by their ter would be as clear as any spring clamminess, to every animal or ve- water, and as sweet. getable substance they meet with,
Unflacked lime has likewise the and carry them to the bottom. quality of sweetening calks, by just There the animal and vegetable putting some of it in cold water particles, the only putrescent ones, into the caík, stopping it close, and are so far separated from one and- then rolling it about till no more ther, by the intervening clay, that noise is heard. they no where come in contact in I shall say no more, but refer sufficient quantity to bring on a
you to Alston's Dissertations on regular putrefaction, but rather Quick Lime, and its great use in diffolve into an uniform substance sea voyages. with the clay.
I had always good success in I shall not enter here into the both white and black from morgreat naval purposes to which this tality, a great deal of which I atdiscovery may be applied, leaving tributed to the lime in water ; and that to the author himself, or to after using it a little while, the
flaves would not drink the water without lime was in it.
Once a sailor, now a farmer, Easy method of sweetening putrid Water, with a hint for remedy, there is mentioned a ventilator by
P.S. In Dr. Mead's works, ing some inconveniences attend
a ing fire-ventilators.
fire from the furnace, which being
tried on board his majesty's fhips, Have been captain of a Guiney. complaint was made of the fire feveral voyages ; on which
going down with the pipe. occasions I always took a half bar- This might be easily remedied rel of unflacked lime with me, to
by forming it into the furnace with be ready to use to sweeten the a fwan's neck. ship’s water.
I am sure it would be of the On the slaves being turned down utmost service on board a Guineyin an evening, we always got our man, as our furpace is fixed at the water up, in a cask we have on barricade at the main hatchway. purpose, abaft our barricade, first From the pipe that leads to the straining the water off out of the well there should be two branches cask, being the sediment of what of about a foot of two long, to was left that day to put into the which the leather ouses (pipes of boiler (which was of iron, as I the same nature with the leather never used a copper) for the next pipes used in fire-engines) ihould day's slaves provision ; then we be fcrewed ; and at every fathom
1 filled our cask out of the hold, the distance there should be wooden water often being thick, and stink- nolles, as they then might make ing very much; to remedy which the ouses longer or shorter, to be we always put three or four meat conveyed to what part of the ship spoonfuls of the lime to a punchion they pleased.
health live temperately, particn. Y of the provifions both for
General rules to preserve the Translation of a letter from the
health of soldiers and sailors in Avoyer, or chief magistrate, at hot climates : l'y the late Dr. Berne, in Switzerland, to Hales.
relative to the magazines for
corn and wine there. VIRST, let all our soldiers
U larly let them abstain from all excess in rum, or other spirituous li- corn and wine which are fubfift
Whatever they drink of ing in the canton of Berne, and spirits must be a long time distilled, if it is true that we owe the estaand reduced to an innocent sherbet, blishment of them to the patriotic by mixing in it five parts in fix of zeal of a citizen of this republic, water. This may be done by the who, dying without children, care of their officers.
left his riches for that purpose : Secondly, let them, as much as in regard to which, I have the possible, avoid the heavy evening honour to acquaint you, that you dews, or wetting their feet at have been misinformed as to the night, which last generally pro- nature of the foundation of our duces fatal fore throats : if by acci- magazines ; and give me leave to dent they wet their feet, the surest add, by the way, that it is not in remedy is, as quickly as they can this little republic, as in great after, to wet their whole body. states. At Berne private men
Thirdly, let them, where they have very slender fortunes : have opportunity, plunge every the contrary, the state, by a course morning into the falt water. In of disinterestedness and prudent the inland parts, where this oppor- economy in those who govern, tunity is not at hand, let each fol. may pass for rich, since the rights dier every morning throw into his of the royalties only, with the bason an ounce of salt ; and after rents of the estates, or lordships; it is dissolved in the water, dip in- of which they are possessed, both to the bason a coarse towel, and by purchase and conqueft, put it wet his head, his limbs, and all his in their power, and even without body over with this salt water, raising any fort of tax or excise on and immediately after put on his the people, to lay up almost every cloaths without drying his skin : year some faving in the treafury; bay salt is the best, if it may be from thence it arises that the gohad. This wonderfully strengthens vernment is always both willing and braces all the muscular fibres, and able to relieve the wants of its and covers the skin with a kind citizens and subjects, and thereof saltish crust, which prevents fore such foundation's would, in all feverish infections. This whole this country, be works of fupereprocess may be executed in three rogation. minutes, and effectually embalms The magistrates of Berne ever and preserves the body from danger flatter themselves that it is more for that day.
honourable for them to adminifter