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nue was on a much better footing < at the same time that it would than that of his predecessor, yet

“ effectually cut off the principal still it fell very fort of its ancient “ subject of disputes which had limits. That free trade, which “ disturbed the good understandhad been indulged by the exigen- ing between us, an object I have cies of Mir Jaffier, and was so

more than

any

other at heart." much increased by his own, threa- No reply could be made to tened to annihilate his customs, this. The matter was evidently whilst it drew all the interior , as in his power, and he had a full well as foreign commerce of Ben- right to do it: but the procedure gal from his own subjects, and its tended evidently to destroy the natural channels. He, therefore, private trade carried on by the began every where to subject the gentlemen of the factory, and English private traders to the re- even to prejudice, as they said, gulat and equal payment of du- that of the company itself. Though ties throughout his dominions, long used to dictate on all fuch and directed that their disputes, occasions, the governor

found the if beyond their limits, new nabob fo intelligent and so should be decided by his magi- firm, that he thought proper to strates.

submit to regulations, by which This step alarmed the factory. the privileges of the English were Nov.

The governor himself, Mr. put under several, perhaps not

Vanfittart, went to Mong- unreasonable, but certainly very 1762.

heer to expoftulate with unpleasing restrictions. These rehim upon

it. The fubah answer- gulations were instantly put in ed his remonstrances with great

execution and the Indian maforce of reason, and great com- giftrates began to exercise their mand of temper,

“ If,” said he, power with a proper spirit, as " the servants of the English com

They asserted, but, as our people pany were permitted to trade in complained, with partiality and “ all parts, and in all commo

rigour. 5 dities, custom free, as many of

As soon as the effect of this ne“ them now pretend, they must, gociation at Mongheer was known “ of course, draw all the trade at Calcutta, the factory was im“ into their own hands, and my mediately in a flame. They were “ customs would be of so little va

filled with astonishment and indiglue, that it would be much more nation at finding, that an Afiatic my

interest to lay trade en- prince, of their own creation, had “tirely open, and collect no cuf- dared to be a sovereign. They “ toms from any person whatso- began to repent of their late

ever upon any kind of mer- change, and to wish that they had $ chandize, This would draw a

left the timid and indolent Mir “ number of merchants into the Jaffier to flumber quietly on his * country, and increase my revé

throne.

The council of Calcutta nues, by encouraging the cul- disavowed their gover- Jan. 17th, $¢ tivation and manufacture of a nor, and refused to abide

1763. “ large quantity of goods for sale, by his treaty.

They

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They affirmed that he assumed a

every thing was at once thrown right to which he was no ways into confusion, and commerce in. authorized ; that the regulations terrupted in every part. They approposed by him were dishonour- plied again to Mir Coffim, to enter able to them as Englishmen, and into a new agreement. But now tended to the ruin of all public grown confident of his strength, and private trade ; and that the with many accusations of their inpresident's issuing out of regula- constancy and insolence, he haughtions, independently of the coun- tily refused to negotiate with their cil, was an absolute breach of their deputies ; the English factory, privileges. They sent orders to yielding in nothing to his spirit, all the factories, that no part of prepared to draw their army into the agreement between the gover-, the field, and once

Beginning nor and the subah should be sub

more proclaimed Mir mitted to.

Jaffier subah of Ben

1763. Disputes arose amongst them; gal.

of July,

CHA P. VIII.

Euglish surprize Patna. Driven out and defeated. Major Adams

takes the field. Action at Ballasara. Battle of Nuncas Nullas, Siege of Auda Nulla. Great slaughter of the Indians. Mongheer reduced. Massacre of the English prisoners at Patna. Patna taken, Mir Cossim flies out of Bengal.

IN
N this war the first blow was the first attack, the governor and

struck by the English. Patna garrison fled, and some slaughter is a city of great extent, and confi- ensued. On the taking of this derable trade on the Ganges, about place with so little resistance, the 300 miles above Calcutta. There conquerors neglected all precauthe English East India company tions; they fell loosely and greehave a fortified factory, and some dily on their prey, and dispersed European as well as Indian fol. themselves on every side, wasting diers. Whether in consequence of and plundering this opulent and orders from the superior council' feeble city. at Calcutta, or from some fepa- The Indian governor, as soon rate design, or from some offence as he had recovered from his fright, or provocation given or under- perceived the error of his enemies; ftood, we have no information, and resolved to avail himself of June 25,

this factory on a sudden their disorder. Reinforced in the 1963.

attacked and carried that country, he returned to Patna four

great city, notwith- hours after he had left it. The standing its fortifications had been place was retaken with as little renewly repaired, and that it was de- listance as it had been loft. The fended by a strong garrison. On English, wildly difperfed about

the

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were

the city, were all either cut to tendants, though they July 3d, pieces, or obliged to seek refuge in had been furnished with July 3d,

1763. their fort.

the nabob's pass, which Such was the sudden change in ought to have protected them. their affairs and spirits, that the This act of treacherous hostility factory, which a few hours before hastened the preparations of our was not afraid or unable to storm army, which immediately took the the city, were not now in a con- field under major Adams. It condition to defend their fort. They fifted, at first, of no

more than took the resolution of abandoning one regiment of the king's forces ; it, and retreating into the territo- a few of the company's'; two fies of a neighbouring nabob. troops of European cavalry ; ten They accordingly crossed the companies of seapoys ; and twelve Ganges, and met with no obstruc- pieces of cannon. tion during the first three days of They very soon came to action, their march; but they were at and having the advanlength overtaken, attacked by a tage in two brisk skir

tage in two brisk fkir- July 11th

and 14th, superior force, and, after two mishes, they cleared July 1st, engagements, in

the the country to the Coflimbuzar rifirst of which they had ver, a considerable branch of the the advantage,

entirely Ganges, which it was necessary routed.

they should pass, before they could It appears (from what infor- master Murshudabad, the capital of mation we possess) that, without the province. The enemy made considering the reason or equity of opposition to their passing of the the thing, the attack of Patma by river ; but had drawn out their our fa&ory there was not a design army, consisting of 10,000 men, very prudently conceived. In in an advantageous poft on the the heart of the enemy's coun

other side, between the river and try, near the very center of his the city. The place was called strength interposed directly be- Ballafara. The Indians, on some tween them and their friends, in judicious motions of major Adams, no great numbers, at a vast dif- were obliged to begin tance from all succour, no of- the engagement, which

July 19th. fensive operation could be ex- they did with great resolution, pected from them. But, if they and bore the cannonade with great had contented themselves with firmness, until they arrived withacting on the defensive, from the in fifty yards, when they inexpertness of the Indians in the ceived such a storm of musketry, art of reducing strong places, they as obliged them retire with might have maintained them- precipitation.

This advantage selves for a long time in their was soon followed by a complete factory.

victory. The deputies, who had been Great activity, which in every sent to Mongheer, were attacked scene of military operations is of in their return home, and miser: sach moment, was here much more ably, slaughtered with their at- necessary than

cafions.

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casions. The rains began to fall issue of the war to a single battle, heavily, and the service was se- to, which they draw the whole

No time was therefore loft. strength of their dominions, and Major Adams proceeded directly in which their raw troops conto Murshudabad; but he found founded the veterans, and the bad the enemy again in his way. disordered the good. But, as we They were well posted ; their have seen, he distributed his forces, intrenchments were fifteen feet and defended his dominions pori high, and defended with a nume- by post. His second maxim was, rous artillery .

not to hazard his own person in It would have been an unjusti- any engagement. Faithful subable boldness to think of gain- ječts are always animated by the ing such a post in the face of presence of their king. But, fituthe enemy

It was, however, ne- ated as he was, another event cessary to gain it by some me- was to be expected, if he should thod. A stratagem was laid, and put himself at the head of his fucceeded. The English troops.

He therefore constantly July 23d.

commander made a feint declined it. He knew that his with a small body of troops officers, conscious that they could againft that part were the enemy make no merit of their treachery had collected their strength. Whilst by being able to deliver up their they were amused with this ap- prince, and that their conduct in pearance, the whole

army was one engagement could neither setmarched in the night ; and at day- tle his fortune or their own, would break, the Indians found them at fight with much more steadiness the opposite quarter of their in- and resolution. trenchments, where they had but

His conduct was formed upon a flight guard. Aftonished with wise principles, but his army had this Itroke, they fled, and aban- not yet time to be compleated in doned the intrenchments and the discipline. The English were in city, which they covered, to the the full career of victory, and noconqueror.

thing could stand before them. This great advantage did not But they found a sensible differflacken the diligence of the Eng- ence in the opposition made to lish.

They penetrated into the their arms, though it was not heart of the province, and fought able fully to obitruct their prothe subah in the utmost recesses of gress. Bengal, across the numerous and When they met the princiwide branches of the Ganges ; pal force of the Indian army on through marshes and.forests. the banks of a river callMir Coffim, on his fide, was not ed Nuncas Nullas, they

Aug. 2d. remifs in his defence. He ob- found their poft chofen with great served two maxims well adapted to judgment; they found a body, the quality of his troops, and to which, in a manner, reflected their the flight attachment of Indian sub- own ;' divided into regular brijects to their sovereign. For he did gades, with a good train of artillery not act as the eastern princes have too

well served ; the same arms; the often done, who commit the whole same accoutrements, and the same

cloathing cloathing with their own. What and lay between the swamp and was more striking, they found much the river. of their own order and spirit. This was a post rather for a What was never before observed ' fiege than for an attack. The in India, the encmy

did not

efforts against it were, therefore, begin their cannonade until the the operations of a flege. They Englisk had begun their attack, were continued with great diliand thus maintained their ground gence, but without any decisive in an obftinate dispute of four effect, from the 21st of August to hours constant firing. Their ca- the 4th of September, when the valry also charged the regular commander, tired out with the European troops at twenty yards flow and uncertain procedure, redistance with uncommon resolu- folved to change his measures. tion. But, though their discipline The enemy's whole attention and spirit were so greatly superior had been diverted to the river, on to any thing which had been the side of which the principal at. known before in that part of the tempts of the English had been all world ; and though they consisted along made. They were quite neg. of 20,000 horse, and 8,000 foot, ligent on the side of the mountain ; the English were in the end fupe- secure from the remoteness of the rior. The Indians were obliged grand attack of thc English, and to quit the field, and abandon all the great natural strength of their their cannon.

poft on this quarter. After this decisive proof of the On this quarter, therefore, masuperiority of our forces, they ne- jor Adams resolved to make an ver attempted a regular engage- attempt. After having difpofed ment in the open field, during the every thing for an attempt of such whole campaign. But they fhew. importance with great judgment, ed neither want of discipline nor he detached major Irwin with a want of skill in pursuing other chosen body of Europeans, and the measures. A post, called Auda best seapoys or Indian soldiers in Nulla, by nature very strong, they the army, the whole amounting to had fortified with as much care about 2000 men, to attack that as if it had been the weakest. part before day-break, being preIn front it had considerable pared to follow and support them swamp ; it was protected on one with the whole line. side by the mountains ; on the

This service was abl other by the river Ganges. Here folutely performed. The intrenchthey threw up a great work, and ments were carried ; a general mounted an hundred pieces of can- confusion and an incredible laughnon ; having in their front a deep ter of the enemy ensued. As many ditch, fifty-four feet wide, and perished by drowning as by the full of water in every part except sword: The rout of the Indians that which lay towards the mountains. The breadth of dry ground, On this defeat they abandoned which the English had for car- a vast tract; and though they had rying on their approaches, did several other very defenfible posts, not exceed two hundred yards, one L.hind anuther, they made a

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stand

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was total.

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