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For the Y E A R 17764.
33 which above one hundred thousand Once more we wish to remind the pounds was brought to the service reader, that we do not mean to of the year, the relief, at least tem- enter at large into this difficult porary, procured to the public for question. It would oppress our a million of exchequer bills ; and narrative. We touch the heads the saying on the non-effective just as far as may tend to shew, on men, amounting to so great a sum'; what general grounds our several those were matters of considerable parties have contended. merit; and we do not remember In this manner the session passed that they were even cavilled at. over; and the ministry, to whose
Whether it were better, at that duration fo fhort a date had been time, to have new taxes provided assigned, not only weathered the for the interest of the unfunded storms of the feffion, but seemed debt, is a question not at all easy to gather new strength to contend to be decided; it had been disput- with future tempefts. They gaed, without being at all deter- thered at least no small degree mined, in the preceding year. As of boldness from their success : for, to the other capital objection, the immediately after they had been eftimated surplus of the sinking fomewhat hardly pressed in the fund, time can only shew the question of the general warrants, grounds of the predictions con- several officers, some of them of cerning its failure, on which the high rank and distinguished merit impropriety of so large an applica- in the army, were dismissed from tion of it was alledged.
the service. This step (which was With regard to the charge of generally construed to be a punishcontinuing the land tax at 4s. in ment of these officers for their the pound, it is altogether frivo- votes), if it may be supposed to lous. Heavy as that burthen un- intimidate the unsteady friends of questionably is, nothing is more
the administration, gave great certain, than that no plan of ad- reason of clamour to their eneminiftration did or could propose mies ; if it shewed the power of to carry on public business, in our the ministry in one session, it may present circumstances, without that be a means of shaking it in anassistance.
other. The practice of dismissing On the whole, the scheme of military men for parliamentary
means seems to have conduct having always appeared, had a considerable share of merit, if not unjustifiable, at least exthough perhaps set off with a little tremely indiscreet. Nothing could too much parade, and some mi. be better calculated to raise an nisterial artifice, in their situation, alarm for the freedom of parliaperhaps, not wholly inexcusable. ment.
Affairs in Indostan. Situation of Mir Jaffier. His territories invaded by a son of the mogul's, and the Marattas. Ill condition of his government. He is deposed; and Mir Cossim set up in his place. Character and designs of Mir Cossim. His disputes with the English, War undertaken against him. Mir Jaffier proclaimed.
HE affairs of India have biter of kingdoms, raises and de
been omitted for some time poses fovereigns by its clerks and in our Register, on account of the warehouse-keepers ; and the proimperfections, obscurity, and con- prietors of India itock debate on tradictions in the relations of the fate of princes and of nations, them, which had been made pub- and dispose of them with all the lic. Though they are not, in all loftiness and all the power of a respects, thoroughly cleared, yet Roman senate. enough has appeared in the course The reader will remember the of this year, to engage us to re- deposition of Surajah Dowla, firfume them, and to treat of the bah of Bengal, by the arms of events there as much at large as Lord Clive in 1756, and the eleis consistent with our plan in con- vation of Mir Jaffier Aly Cawn; ducting this history ; in which we who attained to that tottering digstudy to afford our readers as much nity, by betraying and murdering information upon every subject of his master. He was scarcely inpublic concern as can be given, vested with it, when he found himwithout too great an exercise of self surrounded with difficulties their patience. In reality, the and dangers. The kindred of the fplendid and lucrative advantages prince he had deposed looked upwe have acquired in India ; the on him with an evil eye, and filled greatness of the enterprises, in his mind with continual apprewhich (whether wisely or not) we hensions. He had no confidence have engaged ourselves; the un- in the great men who surrounded certainty of the final issue of those him : he was, and not without reaattempts; the debates, almost son, jealous and fearful even of equal, in zeal and fervour, to those the English power, which had of national parties, which have wrought so great a revolution in arisen upon them; naturally ren- his favour. His treasury had been der the affairs of our company exhausted, and his best revenues there a most interesting object, mortgaged, to satisfy the sums and a matter of general and eager which he had ftipulated as an incuriofity.
demnification and a reward to Since the year 1756, three ca- them. And the privileges which pital revolutions have been effect- he was obliged to grant them in ed in Bengal by our management. trade, to the detriment of his The company, which from a fo- customs, took away the few seciety of merchants has become ar. sources he had left. His necessities
put put him upon odious methods of support of his tottering age and faising money, which lost him the power, was killed by lightenhearts of his subjects. These ne- ing. cellities continued notwithftanding A prevailing party in the counthese methods ; and his troops, cil of Calcutta, observing the suupon whom every thing depended, bah fo extremely weakened, prowere ill disciplined, because not voked at any opposition from one paid. This evil every day engen- whom they considered as their dered on itself. Without the aid creature, and, perhaps, hoping of the troops, the revenues could to advance their fortunes by new not be collected, no more than revolutions, formed a design of dethe troops could be paid without, posing Mir Jaffier from the throne, the revenues.
The principal lords which he filled with so much un. or rajas rebelled, and refused their easiness and incapacity. accustomed tribute.
The crimes, however, with Thus surrounded at home by which they charged him, were evian army of mutineers and a court dently not of their cognizance ; of conspirators, he was threatened the injuries they pretended to have from abroad with invasions from fuffered seemed light' and trivial ; every quarter : from Shah Zada, and the existence of the conspiraa son of the mogul's who attempt cies against the interest of the Enged to reduce him ; and from the lish was not very clearly establishMarattas, a powerful and warlike ed. Nothing advantageous could nation, which has occasionally all be rationally hoped from such a rethe governments of India under volution to the general interests of contribution. In this situation, his the company. No successor could mind, agitated and anxious, and be more entirely subject to them, filled with the bloody politics of from his want of natural support his country, fought relief by mur- or personal capacity. This last dering the objects of his jealousy, confideration was so strong, that the family of his predecessor and fome, who afterwards co-operated the most fa&tious of his courtiers. in his depofition, at first strenuousHe entered into various negotia- ly opposed it; and fome perfifted tions with the Indian powers, and, in censuring, what seemed to them it is said, with the Dutch, in order fo bold and so unnecessary a meato secure himself from the Eng: sure, to the very
last. Those, who lish. The poverty
into which had resolved to take the manage. he was fallen obliged him to in- ment of affairs out of the hands of fringe several of the ruinous pri- Mir Jaffier, insisted that his incapavileges, with which he had 'in- city was such, that, whatever ad. dulged the servants of the compa- vantages they might expect from ny; and thus he totally alienated it, unless he was aided and even the affections of those who were controlled by some perfon of abithe disposers of his fate. To com- lity. He must shortly be ruined pleat his misfortunes, his son, who' himself, and, possibly, the interest alone of his children
of the company in Bengal might rived at maturity, and proved the be ruined along with him.
On these principles a secret fuffer death than draw his sword
treaty was concluded against them. He seemed to be Sept. 15th,
with Mir Coslim Aly so satisfied that avarice was the 1760.
Cawn, son-in-law of motive to this attempt, that he Mir Jaffier, not, indeed, to place desired to know, what sum of mohim upon
the throne of his father, ney Mir Coffim was to give for but to vest in him all the power of the fubahship, and he would give it, leaving only his title to the fu- half as much more to be continubah. Mir Coslim, in his turn, made ed in it. He hoped, however, no fcruples; but readily ftipulated that, if they intended to dethrone every thing which could be asked him, they would not leave him by those, in whose power it was to to the mercy of his son-in-law, give or withhold the whole object. from whom he feared the worst,
In consequence of this treaty, but rather wished they would cargovernor Vanfittart and colonel ry him from Murshudabad, and Caillaud (the fame who has per- give him a place of safety in Cal. formed such important services in cutta. India) marched, under other pre- This request, which they chose tences, to Murshudabad, the capi- to consider as a formal abdication, tal where the subah resided. They was instantly granted ; and Mir farrounded his palace, before he Jaffier thinking justly, that there had any notice of their intentions ; was a better security in the mildthey demanded that he should dif- ness of the European manners, than milš his evil counsellors, and in- in the ties of nature in India, reftantly vest the government in his fided as a private man at Calcutfon-in-law, threatening in case of ta; enjoying, probably, more haprefusal to storm his palace.
piness in this retreat, than in all This unfortunate prince, be- the grandeur which he held for trayed by his family, and attack- about four years with so many ed by those to whom he owed his apprehenfions, and attempted to elevation, seemed at first determin- fecure, though in vain, with to many ed to make some defence; but, on murders. 04. 20th,
their repeated threats, The successor, of a character
he ordered the gates altogether different from that of 1760.
to be opened, exclaim- his father-in-law, bold, subtle, ing, it is said, that he was betray- enterprising, of an extensive and ed; that the English were guilty commanding genius, felt his fiof perjury and breach of faith; tuation in all its degrading cirthat he perceived their defigns cumstances, and at once conceivagainst his government; that heed the design of freeing himself had friends enough to hazard at from the chains of so dislionourleast one battle in his defence; able a dependence. He knew but although no oaths were sacred he was not served from friendenough to bind the English, yet fhip, and, therefore, thought as he had sworn to be their faith- he owed no return of gratitude. fui friend, he would never swerve But for a while it was necessary from his engagement, and rather he should dissemble, and take all
possible advantage ef the power of two hundred miles higher up the his allies, whilst it could be ser- Ganges. This place he fortified viceable to him. By their aslift- as expeditioully and strongly as he ance he cleared his government
could. of invaders, and strengthened his Here he began to form his army frontiers. He defeated Shah Za- on a new model. He drew to. da, with whom he afterwards en- gether all the Persians, Tartars, tered into a treaty, probably much Armenians, and other soldiers of to his advantage, and very little, fortune, whose military character probably, to ours. Then, and he thought might inspirit his Inby the same assistance, he reduced dian forces, and teach them to the rajas, or independent Indian overcome their natural timiditya chiefs, who had rebelled during Sensible likewise of the superiothe feeble administration of his rity of the European discipline, he predecessor; and, compelling them neglected nothing to acquire it. to the payment of their usual tri- Every wandering European who bute, repaired his exhausted ti- had borne arms, all the seapoys nances, and thereby fecured the who had been dismified from the discipline and fidelity of his troops. English fervice, he carefully colHaving thus brought his province lected, and distributed amongst his to peace and obedience by the af- troops, to form them to our exerfiftance of the English forces, but cise. "He changed the fashion of one thing remained to his perfect the Indian mulkets from matchestablishment; the fecuring him- locks to firelocks. And because self from those very English. He their cannon was nearly as defeccomplained, that he had been, tive as their small arms, he proeven from his elevation to his new cured a pattern of one from the dignity, treated with so much of English, on which he formed an every kind of insolence, that it excellent train of artillery. Attenleemed as if his power had been tive to his army, he was not forconferred upon hin, merely to de- getful of his court, the treachery base both his person and authority. and factious dissensions of which This treatment confirmed him in had hitherto been more fatal to the his resolution of asserting his in- Indian princes than the ineflicidependency, even as a necessary ency of their arms. He therefore means of his repose, as well as of cut off or threw into prison every his honour.
considerable person in his dominiHis first step was to remuve from ons, who had shewn any attach1761.
Murshudabad. The vici- ment to the English.
When he had thus strengthened cutta gave the English factory an himself by every measure which opportunity of a continual and vi- a wife and able man, unchecked gilant inspection of his actions ; by conscience, could take, he beand an opportunity, whenever they gan to exert that authority which thought fit, of interrupting him in he thought he had so well estahis designs. He took up his reli- blished, and to which he had fo dence at a place called. Mongheer, just a right. Although his reve